SB 9.21: The Dynasty of Bharata

This Twenty-first Chapter describes the dynasty born from Mahārāja Bharata, the son of Mahārāja Duṣmanta, and it also describes the glories of Rantideva, Ajamīḍha and others.

The son of Bharadvāja was Manyu, and Manyu’s sons were Bṛhatkṣatra, Jaya, Mahāvīrya, Nara and Garga. Of these five, Nara had a son named Saṅkṛti, who had two sons, named Guru and Rantideva. As an exalted devotee, Rantideva saw every living entity in relationship with the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and therefore he completely engaged his mind, his words and his very self in the service of the Supreme Lord and His devotees. Rantideva was so exalted that he would sometimes give away his own food in charity, and he and his family would fast. Once, after Rantideva spent forty-eight days fasting, not even drinking water, excellent food made with ghee was brought to him, but when he was about to eat it a brāhmaṇa guest appeared. Rantideva, therefore, did not eat the food, but instead immediately offered a portion of it to the brāhmaṇa. When the brāhmaṇa left and Rantideva was just about to eat the remnants of the food, a śūdra appeared. Rantideva therefore divided the remnants between the śūdra and himself. Again, when he was just about to eat the remnants of the food, another guest appeared. Rantideva therefore gave the rest of the food to the new guest and was about to content himself with drinking the water to quench his thirst, but this also was precluded, for a thirsty guest came and Rantideva gave him the water. This was all ordained by the Supreme Personality of Godhead just to glorify His devotee and show how tolerant a devotee is in rendering service to the Lord. The Supreme Personality of Godhead, being extremely pleased with Rantideva, entrusted him with very confidential service. The special power to render the most confidential service is entrusted by the Supreme Personality of Godhead to a pure devotee, not to ordinary devotees.

Garga, the son of Bharadvāja, had a son named Śini, and Śini’s son was Gārgya. Although Gārgya was a kṣatriya by birth, his sons became brāhmaṇas. The son of Mahāvīrya was Duritakṣaya, whose sons were Trayyāruṇi, Kavi and Puṣkarāruṇi. Although these three sons were born of a kṣatriya king, they also achieved the position of brāhmaṇas. The son of Bṛhatkṣatra constructed the city of Hastināpura and was known as Hastī. His sons were Ajamīḍha, Dvimīḍha and Purumīḍha.

From Ajamīḍha came Priyamedha and other brāhmaṇas and also a son named Bṛhadiṣu. The sons, grandsons and further descendants of Bṛhadiṣu were Bṛhaddhanu, Bṛhatkāya, Jayadratha, Viśada and Syenajit. From Syenajit came four sons — Rucirāśva, Dṛḍhahanu, Kāśya and Vatsa. From Rucirāśva came a son named Pāra, whose sons were Pṛthusena and Nīpa, and from Nīpa came one hundred sons. Another son of Nīpa was Brahmadatta. From Brahmadatta came Viṣvaksena; from Viṣvaksena, Udaksena; and from Udaksena, Bhallāṭa.

The son of Dvimīḍha was Yavīnara, and from Yavīnara came many sons and grandsons, such as Kṛtimān, Satyadhṛti, Dṛḍhanemi, Supārśva, Sumati, Sannatimān, Kṛtī, Nīpa, Udgrāyudha, Kṣemya, Suvīra, Ripuñjaya and Bahuratha. Purumīḍha had no sons, but Ajamīḍha, in addition to his other sons, had a son named Nīla, whose son was Śānti. The descendants of Śānti were Suśānti, Puruja, Arka and Bharmyāśva. Bharmyāśva had five sons, one of whom, Mudgala, begot a dynasty of brāhmaṇas. Mudgala had twins — a son, Divodāsa, and a daughter, Ahalyā. From Ahalyā, by her husband, Gautama, Śatānanda was born. The son of Śatānanda was Satyadhṛti, and his son was Śaradvān. Śaradvān’s son was known as Kṛpa, and Śaradvān’s daughter, known as Kṛpī, became the wife of Droṇācārya.

SB 9.21.1

śrī-śuka uvāca
vitathasya sutān manyor
 bṛhatkṣatro jayas tataḥ
mahāvīryo naro gargaḥ
 saṅkṛtis tu narātmajaḥ
Synonyms: 
śrī-śukaḥ uvāca — Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said; vitathasya — of Vitatha (Bharadvāja), who was accepted in the family of Mahārāja Bharata under special circumstances of disappointment; sutāt — from the son; manyoḥ — named Manyu; bṛhatkṣatraḥ — Bṛhatkṣatra; jayaḥ — Jaya; tataḥ — from him; mahāvīryaḥ — Mahāvīrya; naraḥ — Nara; gargaḥ — Garga; saṅkṛtiḥ — Saṅkṛti; tu — certainly; nara-ātmajaḥ — the son of Nara.
Translation: 
Śukadeva Gosvāmī said: Because Bharadvāja was delivered by the Marut demigods, he was known as Vitatha. The son of Vitatha was Manyu, and from Manyu came five sons — Bṛhatkṣatra, Jaya, Mahāvīrya, Nara and Garga. Of these five, the one known as Nara had a son named Saṅkṛti.

SB 9.21.2

guruś ca rantidevaś ca
 saṅkṛteḥ pāṇḍu-nandana
rantidevasya mahimā
 ihāmutra ca gīyate
Synonyms: 
guruḥ — a son named Guru; ca — and; rantidevaḥ ca — and a son named Rantideva; saṅkṛteḥ — from Saṅkṛti; pāṇḍu-nandana — O Mahārāja Parīkṣit, descendant of Pāṇḍu; rantidevasya — of Rantideva; mahimā — the glories; iha — in this world; amutra — and in the next world; ca — also; gīyate — are glorified.
Translation: 
O Mahārāja Parīkṣit, descendant of Pāṇḍu, Saṅkṛti had two sons, named Guru and Rantideva. Rantideva is famous in both this world and the next, for he is glorified not only in human society but also in the society of the demigods.

SB 9.21.3-5

viyad-vittasya dadato
 labdhaṁ labdhaṁ bubhukṣataḥ
niṣkiñcanasya dhīrasya
 sakuṭumbasya sīdataḥ
vyatīyur aṣṭa-catvāriṁśad
 ahāny apibataḥ kila
ghṛta-pāyasa-saṁyāvaṁ
 toyaṁ prātar upasthitam
kṛcchra-prāpta-kuṭumbasya
 kṣut-tṛḍbhyāṁ jāta-vepathoḥ
atithir brāhmaṇaḥ kāle
 bhoktu-kāmasya cāgamat
Synonyms: 
viyat-vittasya — of Rantideva, who received things sent by providence, just as the cātaka bird receives water from the sky; dadataḥ — who distributed to others; labdham — whatever he got; labdham — such gains; bubhukṣataḥ — he enjoyed; niṣkiñcanasya — always penniless; dhīrasya — yet very sober; sa-kuṭumbasya — even with his family members; sīdataḥ — suffering very much; vyatīyuḥ — passed by; aṣṭa-catvāriṁśat — forty-eight; ahāni — days; apibataḥ — without even drinking water; kila — indeed; ghṛta-pāyasa — food prepared with ghee and milk; saṁyāvam — varieties of food grains; toyam — water; prātaḥ — in the morning; upasthitam — arrived by chance; kṛcchra-prāpta — undergoing suffering; kuṭumbasya — whose family members; kṣut-tṛḍbhyām — by thirst and hunger; jāta — became; vepathoḥ — trembling; atithiḥ — a guest; brāhmaṇaḥ — a brāhmaṇa; kāle — just at that time; bhoktu-kāmasya — of Rantideva, who desired to eat something; ca — also; āgamat — arrived there.
Translation: 
Rantideva never endeavored to earn anything. He would enjoy whatever he got by the arrangement of providence, but when guests came he would give them everything. Thus he underwent considerable suffering, along with the members of his family. Indeed, he and his family members shivered for want of food and water, yet Rantideva always remained sober. Once, after fasting for forty-eight days, in the morning Rantideva received some water and some foodstuffs made with milk and ghee, but when he and his family were about to eat, a brāhmaṇa guest arrived.

SB 9.21.6

tasmai saṁvyabhajat so ’nnam
 ādṛtya śraddhayānvitaḥ
hariṁ sarvatra saṁpaśyan
 sa bhuktvā prayayau dvijaḥ
Synonyms: 
tasmai — unto him (the brāhmaṇa); saṁvyabhajat — after dividing, gave his share; saḥ — he (Rantideva); annam — the food; ādṛtya — with great respect; śraddhayā anvitaḥ — and with faith; harim — the Supreme Lord; sarvatra — everywhere, or in the heart of every living being; saṁpaśyan — conceiving; saḥ — he; bhuktvā — after eating the food; prayayau — left that place; dvijaḥ — the brāhmaṇa.
Translation: 
Because Rantideva perceived the presence of the Supreme Godhead everywhere, and in every living entity, he received the guest with faith and respect and gave him a share of the food. The brāhmaṇa guest ate his share and then went away.
Purport: 

Rantideva perceived the presence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead in every living being, but he never thought that because the Supreme Lord is present in every living being, every living being must be God. Nor did he distinguish between one living being and another. He perceived the presence of the Lord both in the brāhmaṇa and in the caṇḍāla. This is the true vision of equality, as confirmed by the Lord Himself in Bhagavad-gītā (5.18):

vidyā-vinaya-sampanne
 brāhmaṇe gavi hastini
śuni caiva śva-pāke ca
 paṇḍitāḥ sama-darśinaḥ

“The humble sage, by virtue of true knowledge, sees with equal vision a learned and gentle brāhmaṇa, a cow, an elephant, a dog and a dog-eater [outcaste].” A paṇḍita, or learned person, perceives the presence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead in every living being. Therefore, although it has now become fashionable to give preference to the so-called daridra-nārāyaṇa, or “poor Nārāyaṇa,” Rantideva had no reason to give preference to any one person. The idea that because Nārāyaṇa is present in the heart of one who is daridra, or poor, the poor man should be called daridra-nārāyaṇa is a wrong conception. By such logic, because the Lord is present within the hearts of the dogs and hogs, the dogs and hogs would also be Nārāyaṇa. One should not mistakenly think that Rantideva subscribed to this view. Rather, he saw everyone as part of the Supreme Personality of Godhead (hari-sambandhi-vastunaḥ). It is not that everyone is the Supreme Godhead. Such a theory, which is propounded by the Māyāvāda philosophy, is always misleading, and Rantideva would never have accepted it.

SB 9.21.7

athānyo bhokṣyamāṇasya
 vibhaktasya mahīpateḥ
vibhaktaṁ vyabhajat tasmai
 vṛṣalāya hariṁ smaran
Synonyms: 
atha — thereafter; anyaḥ — another guest; bhokṣyamāṇasya — who was just about to eat; vibhaktasya — after setting aside the share for the family; mahīpateḥ — of the King; vibhaktam — the food allotted for the family; vyabhajat — he divided and distributed; tasmai — unto him; vṛṣalāya — unto a śūdra; harim — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; smaran — remembering.
Translation: 
Thereafter, having divided the remaining food with his relatives, Rantideva was just about to eat his own share when a śūdra guest arrived. Seeing the śūdra in relationship with the Supreme Personality of Godhead, King Rantideva gave him also a share of the food.
Purport: 

Because King Rantideva saw everyone as part of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, he never distinguished between the brāhmaṇa and the śūdra, the poor and the rich. Such equal vision is called sama-darśinaḥ (paṇḍitāḥ sama-darśinaḥ). One who has actually realized that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is situated in everyone’s heart and that every living being is part of the Lord does not make any distinction between the brāhmaṇa and the śūdra, the poor (daridra) and the rich (dhanī). Such a person sees all living beings equally and treats them equally, without discrimination.

SB 9.21.8

yāte śūdre tam anyo ’gād
 atithiḥ śvabhir āvṛtaḥ
rājan me dīyatām annaṁ
 sagaṇāya bubhukṣate
Synonyms: 
yāte — when he went away; śūdre — the śūdra guest; tam — unto the King; anyaḥ — another; agāt — arrived there; atithiḥ — guest; śvabhiḥ āvṛtaḥ — accompanied by dogs; rājan — O King; me — unto me; dīyatām — deliver; annam — eatables; sa-gaṇāya — with my company of dogs; bubhukṣate — hankering for food.
Translation: 
When the śūdra went away, another guest arrived, surrounded by dogs, and said, “O King, I and my company of dogs are very hungry. Please give us something to eat.”

SB 9.21.9

sa ādṛtyāvaśiṣṭaṁ yad
 bahu-māna-puraskṛtam
tac ca dattvā namaścakre
 śvabhyaḥ śva-pataye vibhuḥ
Synonyms: 
saḥ — he (King Rantideva); ādṛtya — after honoring them; avaśiṣṭam — the food that remained after the brāhmaṇa and śūdra were fed; yat — whatever there was; bahu-māna-puraskṛtam — offering him much respect; tat — that; ca — also; dattvā — giving away; namaḥ-cakre — offered obeisances; śvabhyaḥ — unto the dogs; śva-pataye — unto the master of the dogs; vibhuḥ — the all-powerful King.
Translation: 
With great respect, King Rantideva offered the balance of the food to the dogs and the master of the dogs, who had come as guests. The King offered them all respects and obeisances.

SB 9.21.10

pānīya-mātram uccheṣaṁ
 tac caika-paritarpaṇam
pāsyataḥ pulkaso ’bhyāgād
 apo dehy aśubhāya me
Synonyms: 
pānīya-mātram — only the drinking water; uccheṣam — what remained of the food; tat ca — that also; eka — for one; paritarpaṇam — satisfying; pāsyataḥ — when the King was about to drink; pulkasaḥ — a caṇḍāla; abhyāgāt — came there; apaḥ — water; dehi — please give; aśubhāya — although I am a lowborn caṇḍāla; me — to me.
Translation: 
Thereafter, only the drinking water remained, and there was only enough to satisfy one person, but when the King was just about to drink it, a caṇḍāla appeared and said, “O King, although I am lowborn, kindly give me some drinking water.”

SB 9.21.11

tasya tāṁ karuṇāṁ vācaṁ
 niśamya vipula-śramām
kṛpayā bhṛśa-santapta
 idam āhāmṛtaṁ vacaḥ
Synonyms: 
tasya — of him (the caṇḍāla); tām — those; karuṇām — pitiable; vācam — words; niśamya — hearing; vipula — very much; śramām — fatigued; kṛpayā — out of compassion; bhṛśa-santaptaḥ — very much aggrieved; idam — these; āha — spoke; amṛtam — very sweet; vacaḥ — words.
Translation: 
Aggrieved at hearing the pitiable words of the poor fatigued caṇḍāla, Mahārāja Rantideva spoke the following nectarean words.
Purport: 

Mahārāja Rantideva’s words were like amṛta, or nectar, and therefore, aside from rendering bodily service to an aggrieved person, by his words alone the King could save the life of anyone who might hear him.

SB 9.21.12

na kāmaye ’haṁ gatim īśvarāt parām
 aṣṭarddhi-yuktām apunar-bhavaṁ vā
ārtiṁ prapadye ’khila-deha-bhājām
 antaḥ-sthito yena bhavanty aduḥkhāḥ
Synonyms: 
na — not; kāmaye — desire; aham — I; gatim — destination; īśvarāt — from the Supreme Personality of Godhead; parām — great; aṣṭa-ṛddhi-yuktām — composed of the eight kinds of mystic perfection; apunaḥ-bhavam — cessation of repeated birth (liberation, salvation); — either; ārtim — sufferings; prapadye — I accept; akhila-deha-bhājām — of all living entities; antaḥ-sthitaḥ — staying among them; yena — by which; bhavanti — they become; aduḥkhāḥ — without distress.
Translation: 
I do not pray to the Supreme Personality of Godhead for the eight perfections of mystic yoga, nor for salvation from repeated birth and death. I want only to stay among all the living entities and suffer all distresses on their behalf, so that they may be freed from suffering.
Purport: 

Vāsudeva Datta made a similar statement to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, requesting the Lord to liberate all living entities in His presence. Vāsudeva Datta submitted that if they were unfit to be liberated, he himself would take all their sinful reactions and suffer personally so that the Lord might deliver them. A Vaiṣṇava is therefore described as being para-duḥkha-duḥkhī, very much aggrieved by the sufferings of others. As such, a Vaiṣṇava engages in activities for the real welfare of human society.

SB 9.21.13

kṣut-tṛṭ-śramo gātra-paribhramaś ca
 dainyaṁ klamaḥ śoka-viṣāda-mohāḥ
sarve nivṛttāḥ kṛpaṇasya jantor
 jijīviṣor jīva-jalārpaṇān me
Synonyms: 
kṣut — from hunger; tṛṭ — and thirst; śramaḥ — fatigue; gātra-paribhramaḥ — trembling of the body; ca — also; dainyam — poverty; klamaḥ — distress; śoka — lamentation; viṣāda — moroseness; mohāḥ — and bewilderment; sarve — all of them; nivṛttāḥ — finished; kṛpaṇasya — of the poor; jantoḥ — living entity (the caṇḍāla); jijīviṣoḥ — desiring to live; jīva — maintaining life; jala — water; arpaṇāt — by delivering; me — mine.
Translation: 
By offering my water to maintain the life of this poor caṇḍāla, who is struggling to live, I have been freed from all hunger, thirst, fatigue, trembling of the body, moroseness, distress, lamentation and illusion.

SB 9.21.14

iti prabhāṣya pānīyaṁ
 mriyamāṇaḥ pipāsayā
pulkasāyādadād dhīro
 nisarga-karuṇo nṛpaḥ
Synonyms: 
iti — thus; prabhāṣya — giving his statement; pānīyam — drinking water; mriyamāṇaḥ — although on the verge of death; pipāsayā — because of thirst; pulkasāya — unto the low-class caṇḍāla; adadāt — delivered; dhīraḥ — sober; nisarga-karuṇaḥ — by nature very kind; nṛpaḥ — the King.
Translation: 
Having spoken thus, King Rantideva, although on the verge of death because of thirst, gave his own portion of water to the caṇḍāla without hesitation, for the King was naturally very kind and sober.

SB 9.21.15

tasya tribhuvanādhīśāḥ
 phaladāḥ phalam icchatām
ātmānaṁ darśayāṁ cakrur
 māyā viṣṇu-vinirmitāḥ
Synonyms: 
tasya — before him (King Rantideva); tri-bhuvana-adhīśāḥ — the controllers of the three worlds (demigods like Brahmā and Śiva); phaladāḥ — who can bestow all fruitive results; phalam icchatām — of persons who desire material benefit; ātmānam — their own identities; darśayām cakruḥ — manifested; māyāḥ — the illusory energy; viṣṇu — by Lord Viṣṇu; vinirmitāḥ — created.
Translation: 
Demigods like Lord Brahmā and Lord Śiva, who can satisfy all materially ambitious men by giving them the rewards they desire, then manifested their own identities before King Rantideva, for it was they who had presented themselves as the brāhmaṇa, śūdra, caṇḍāla and so on.

SB 9.21.16

sa vai tebhyo namaskṛtya
 niḥsaṅgo vigata-spṛhaḥ
vāsudeve bhagavati
 bhaktyā cakre manaḥ param
Synonyms: 
saḥ — he (King Rantideva); vai — indeed; tebhyaḥ — unto Lord Brahmā, Lord Śiva and the other demigods; namaḥ-kṛtya — offering obeisances; niḥsaṅgaḥ — with no ambition to take any benefit from them; vigata-spṛhaḥ — completely free from desires for material possessions; vāsudeve — unto Lord Vāsudeva; bhagavati — the Supreme Lord; bhaktyā — by devotional service; cakre — fixed; manaḥ — the mind; param — as the ultimate goal of life.
Translation: 
King Rantideva had no ambition to enjoy material benefits from the demigods. He offered them obeisances, but because he was factually attached to Lord Viṣṇu, Vāsudeva, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, he fixed his mind at Lord Viṣṇu’s lotus feet.
Purport: 

Śrīla Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura has sung:

anya devāśraya nāi, tomāre kahinu bhāi,
 ei bhakti parama karaṇa

If one wants to become a pure devotee of the Supreme Lord, one should not hanker to take benedictions from the demigods. As stated in Bhagavad-gītā (7.20), kāmais tais tair hṛta-jñānāḥ prapadyante ’nya-devatāḥ: those befooled by the illusion of the material energy worship gods other than the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore, although Rantideva was personally able to see Lord Brahmā and Lord Śiva, he did not hanker to take material benefits from them. Rather, he fixed his mind upon Lord Vāsudeva and rendered devotional service unto Him. This is the sign of a pure devotee, whose heart is not adulterated by material desires.

anyābhilāṣitā-śūnyaṁ
 jñāna-karmādy-anāvṛtam
ānukūlyena kṛṣṇānu-
 śīlanaṁ bhaktir uttamā

“One should render transcendental loving service to the Supreme Lord Kṛṣṇa favorably and without desire for material profit or gain through fruitive activities or philosophical speculation. That is called pure devotional service.”

SB 9.21.17

īśvarālambanaṁ cittaṁ
 kurvato ’nanya-rādhasaḥ
māyā guṇamayī rājan
 svapnavat pratyalīyata
Synonyms: 
īśvara-ālambanam — completely taking shelter at the lotus feet of the Supreme Lord; cittam — his consciousness; kurvataḥ — fixing; ananya-rādhasaḥ — for Rantideva, who was undeviating and desired nothing other than to serve the Supreme Lord; māyā — the illusory energy; guṇa-mayī — consisting of the three modes of nature; rājan — O Mahārāja Parīkṣit; svapna-vat — like a dream; pratyalīyata — merged.
Translation: 
O Mahārāja Parīkṣit, because King Rantideva was a pure devotee, always Kṛṣṇa conscious and free from all material desires, the Lord’s illusory energy, māyā, could not exhibit herself before him. On the contrary, for him māyā entirely vanished, exactly like a dream.
Purport: 

As it is said:

kṛṣṇa — sūrya-sama; māyā haya andhakāra
 yāhāṅ kṛṣṇa, tāhāṅ nāhi māyāra adhikāra

Just as there is no chance that darkness can exist in the sunshine, in a pure Kṛṣṇa conscious person there can be no existence of māyā. The Lord Himself says in Bhagavad-gītā (7.14):

daivī hy eṣā guṇamayī
 mama māyā duratyayā
mām eva ye prapadyante
 māyām etāṁ taranti te

“This divine energy of Mine, consisting of the three modes of material nature, is difficult to overcome. But those who have surrendered unto Me can easily cross beyond it.” If one wants to be free from the influence of māyā, the illusory energy, one must become Kṛṣṇa conscious and always keep Kṛṣṇa prominent within the core of his heart. In Bhagavad-gītā (9.34) the Lord advises that one always think of Him (man-manā bhava mad-bhakto mad-yājī māṁ namaskuru). In this way, by always being Kṛṣṇa-minded or Kṛṣṇa conscious, one can surpass the influence of māyā (māyām etāṁ taranti te). Because Rantideva was Kṛṣṇa conscious, he was not under the influence of the illusory energy. The word svapnavat is significant in this connection. Because in the material world the mind is absorbed in materialistic activities, when one is asleep many contradictory activities appear in one’s dreams. When one awakens, however, these activities automatically merge into the mind. Similarly, as long as one is under the influence of the material energy he makes many plans and schemes, but when one is Kṛṣṇa conscious such dreamlike plans automatically disappear.

SB 9.21.18

tat-prasaṅgānubhāvena
 rantidevānuvartinaḥ
abhavan yoginaḥ sarve
 nārāyaṇa-parāyaṇāḥ
Synonyms: 
tat-prasaṅga-anubhāvena — because of associating with King Rantideva (when talking with him about bhakti-yoga); rantideva-anuvartinaḥ — the followers of King Rantideva (that is, his servants, his family members, his friends and others); abhavan — became; yoginaḥ — first-class mystic yogīs, or bhakti-yogīs; sarve — all of them; nārāyaṇa-parāyaṇāḥ — devotees of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Nārāyaṇa.
Translation: 
All those who followed the principles of King Rantideva were totally favored by his mercy and became pure devotees, attached to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Nārāyaṇa. Thus they all became the best of yogīs.
Purport: 

The best yogīs or mystics are the devotees, as confirmed by the Lord Himself in Bhagavad-gītā (6.47):

yoginām api sarveṣāṁ
 mad-gatenāntarātmanā
śraddhāvān bhajate yo māṁ
 sa me yuktatamo mataḥ

“Of all yogīs, he who always abides in Me with great faith, worshiping Me in transcendental loving service, is most intimately united with Me in yoga and is the highest of all.” The best yogī is he who constantly thinks of the Supreme Personality of Godhead within the core of the heart. Because Rantideva was the king, the chief executive in the state, all the residents of the state became devotees of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Nārāyaṇa, by the king’s transcendental association. This is the influence of a pure devotee. If there is one pure devotee, his association can create hundreds and thousands of pure devotees. Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura has said that a Vaiṣṇava is meritorious in proportion to the number of devotees he has created. A Vaiṣṇava becomes superior not simply by jugglery of words but by the number of devotees he has created for the Lord. Here the word rantidevānuvartinaḥ indicates that Rantideva’s officers, friends, relatives and subjects all became first-class Vaiṣṇavas by his association. In other words, Rantideva is confirmed herein to be a first-class devotee, or mahā-bhāgavata. Mahat-sevāṁ dvāram āhur vimukteḥ: one should render service to such mahātmās, for then one will automatically achieve the goal of liberation. Śrīla Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura has also said, chāḍiyā vaiṣṇava-sevā nistāra pāyeche kebā: one cannot be liberated by his own effort, but if one becomes subordinate to a pure Vaiṣṇava, the door to liberation is open.

SB 9.21.19-20

gargāc chinis tato gārgyaḥ
 kṣatrād brahma hy avartata
duritakṣayo mahāvīryāt
 tasya trayyāruṇiḥ kaviḥ
puṣkarāruṇir ity atra
 ye brāhmaṇa-gatiṁ gatāḥ
bṛhatkṣatrasya putro ’bhūd
 dhastī yad-dhastināpuram
Synonyms: 
gargāt — from Garga (another grandson of Bharadvāja); śiniḥ — a son named Śini; tataḥ — from him (Śini); gārgyaḥ — a son named Gārgya; kṣatrāt — although he was a kṣatriya; brahma — the brāhmaṇas; hi — indeed; avartata — became possible; duritakṣayaḥ — a son named Duritakṣaya; mahāvīryāt — from Mahāvīrya (another grandson of Bharadvāja); tasya — his; trayyāruṇiḥ — the son named Trayyāruṇi; kaviḥ — a son named Kavi; puṣkarāruṇiḥ — a son named Puṣkarāruṇi; iti — thus; atra — therein; ye — all of them; brāhmaṇa-gatim — the position of brāhmaṇas; gatāḥ — achieved; bṛhatkṣatrasya — of the grandson of Bharadvāja named Bṛhatkṣatra; putraḥ — the son; abhūt — became; hastī — Hastī; yat — from whom; hastināpuram — the city of Hastināpura (New Delhi) was established.
Translation: 
From Garga came a son named Śini, and his son was Gārgya. Although Gārgya was a kṣatriya, there came from him a generation of brahmaṇas. From Mahāvīrya came a son named Duritakṣaya, whose sons were Trayyāruṇi, Kavi and Puṣkarāruṇi. Although these sons of Duritakṣaya took birth in a dynasty of kṣatriyas, they too attained the position of brāhmaṇas. Bṛhatkṣatra had a son named Hastī, who established the city of Hastināpura [now New Delhi].

SB 9.21.21

ajamīḍho dvimīḍhaś ca
 purumīḍhaś ca hastinaḥ
ajamīḍhasya vaṁśyāḥ syuḥ
 priyamedhādayo dvijāḥ
Synonyms: 
ajamīḍhaḥ — Ajamīḍha; dvimīḍhaḥ — Dvimīḍha; ca — also; purumīḍhaḥ — Purumīḍha; ca — also; hastinaḥ — became the sons of Hastī; ajamīḍhasya — of Ajamīḍha; vaṁśyāḥ — descendants; syuḥ — are; priyamedha-ādayaḥ — headed by Priyamedha; dvijāḥ — brāhmaṇas.
Translation: 
From King Hastī came three sons, named Ajamīḍha, Dvimīḍha and Purumīḍha. The descendants of Ajamīḍha, headed by Priyamedha, all achieved the position of brāhmaṇas.
Purport: 

This verse gives evidence confirming the statement of Bhagavad-gītā that the orders of society — brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya and śūdra — are calculated in terms of qualities and activities (guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ). All the descendants of Ajamīḍha, who was a kṣatriya, became brāhmaṇas. This was certainly because of their qualities and activities. Similarly, sometimes the sons of brāhmaṇas or kṣatriyas become vaiśyas (brāhmaṇa-vaiśyatāṁ gatāḥ). When a kṣatriya or brāhmaṇa adopts the occupation or duty of a vaiśya (kṛṣi-gorakṣya-vāṇijyam), he is certainly counted as a vaiśya. On the other hand, if one is born a vaiśya, by his activities he can become a brāhmaṇa. This is confirmed by Nārada Muni. Yasya yal-lakṣaṇaṁ proktam. The members of the varṇas, or social orders — brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya and śūdra — must be ascertained by their symptoms, not by birth. Birth is immaterial; quality is essential.

SB 9.21.22

ajamīḍhād bṛhadiṣus
 tasya putro bṛhaddhanuḥ
bṛhatkāyas tatas tasya
 putra āsīj jayadrathaḥ
Synonyms: 
ajamīḍhāt — from Ajamīḍha; bṛhadiṣuḥ — a son named Bṛhadiṣu; tasya — his; putraḥ — son; bṛhaddhanuḥ — Bṛhaddhanu; bṛhatkāyaḥ — Bṛhatkāya; tataḥ — thereafter; tasya — his; putraḥ — son; āsīt — was; jayadrathaḥ — Jayadratha.
Translation: 
From Ajamīḍha came a son named Bṛhadiṣu, from Bṛhadiṣu came a son named Bṛhaddhanu, from Bṛhaddhanu a son named Bṛhatkāya, and from Bṛhatkāya a son named Jayadratha.

SB 9.21.23

tat-suto viśadas tasya
 syenajit samajāyata
rucirāśvo dṛḍhahanuḥ
 kāśyo vatsaś ca tat-sutāḥ
Synonyms: 
tat-sutaḥ — the son of Jayadratha; viśadaḥ — Viśada; tasya — the son of Viśada; syenajit — Syenajit; samajāyata — was born; rucirāśvaḥ — Rucirāśva; dṛḍhahanuḥ — Dṛḍhahanu; kāśyaḥ — Kāśya; vatsaḥ — Vatsa; ca — also; tat-sutāḥ — sons of Syenajit.
Translation: 
The son of Jayadratha was Viśada, and his son was Syenajit. The sons of Syenajit were Rucirāśva, Dṛḍhahanu, Kāśya and Vatsa.

SB 9.21.24

rucirāśva-sutaḥ pāraḥ
 pṛthusenas tad-ātmajaḥ
pārasya tanayo nīpas
 tasya putra-śataṁ tv abhūt
Synonyms: 
rucirāśva-sutaḥ — the son of Rucirāśva; pāraḥ — Pāra; pṛthusenaḥ — Pṛthusena; tat — his; ātmajaḥ — son; pārasya — from Pāra; tanayaḥ — a son; nīpaḥ — Nīpa; tasya — his; putra-śatam — one hundred sons; tu — indeed; abhūt — generated.
Translation: 
The son of Rucirāśva was Pāra, and the sons of Pāra were Pṛthusena and Nīpa. Nīpa had one hundred sons.

SB 9.21.25

sa kṛtvyāṁ śuka-kanyāyāṁ
 brahmadattam ajījanat
yogī sa gavi bhāryāyāṁ
 viṣvaksenam adhāt sutam
Synonyms: 
saḥ — he (King Nīpa); kṛtvyām — in his wife, Kṛtvī; śuka-kanyāyām — who was the daughter of Śuka; brahmadattam — a son named Brahmadatta; ajījanat — begot; yogī — a mystic yogī; saḥ — that Brahmadatta; gavi — by the name Gau or Sarasvatī; bhāryāyām — in the womb of his wife; viṣvaksenam — Viṣvaksena; adhāt — begot; sutam — a son.
Translation: 
King Nīpa begot a son named Brahmadatta through the womb of his wife, Kṛtvī, who was the daughter of Śuka. And Brahmadatta, who was a great yogī, begot a son named Viṣvaksena through the womb of his wife, Sarasvatī.
Purport: 

The Śuka mentioned here is different from the Śukadeva Gosvāmī who spoke Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Śukadeva Gosvāmī, the son of Vyāsadeva, is described in great detail in the Brahma-vaivarta Purāṇa. There it is said that Vyāsadeva maintained the daughter of Jābāli as his wife and that after they performed penances together for many years, he placed his seed in her womb. The child remained in the womb of his mother for twelve years, and when the father asked the son to come out, the son replied that he would not come out unless he were completely liberated from the influence of māyā. Vyāsadeva then assured the child that he would not be influenced by māyā, but the child did not believe his father, for the father was still attached to his wife and children. Vyāsadeva then went to Dvārakā and informed the Personality of Godhead about his problem, and the Personality of Godhead, at Vyāsadeva’s request, went to Vyāsadeva’s cottage, where He assured the child in the womb that he would not be influenced by māyā. Thus assured, the child came out, but he immediately went away as a parivrājakācārya. When the father, very much aggrieved, began to follow his saintly boy, Śukadeva Gosvāmī, the boy created a duplicate Śukadeva, who later entered family life. Therefore, the śuka-kanyā, or daughter of Śukadeva, mentioned in this verse is the daughter of the duplicate or imitation Śukadeva. The original Śukadeva was a lifelong brahmacārī.

SB 9.21.26

jaigīṣavyopadeśena
 yoga-tantraṁ cakāra ha
udaksenas tatas tasmād
 bhallāṭo bārhadīṣavāḥ
Synonyms: 
jaigīṣavya — of the great ṛṣi named Jaigīṣavya; upadeśena — by the instruction; yoga-tantram — an elaborate description of the mystic yoga system; cakāra — compiled; ha — in the past; udaksenaḥ — Udaksena; tataḥ — from him (Viṣvaksena); tasmāt — from him (Udaksena); bhallāṭaḥ — a son named Bhallāṭa; bārhadīṣavāḥ — (all of these are known as) descendants of Bṛhadiṣu.
Translation: 
Following the instructions of the great sage Jaigīṣavya, Viṣvaksena compiled an elaborate description of the mystic yoga system. From Viṣvaksena, Udaksena was born, and from Udaksena, Bhallāṭa. All these sons are known as descendants of Bṛhadiṣu.

SB 9.21.27

yavīnaro dvimīḍhasya
 kṛtimāṁs tat-sutaḥ smṛtaḥ
nāmnā satyadhṛtis tasya
 dṛḍhanemiḥ supārśvakṛt
Synonyms: 
yavīnaraḥ — Yavīnara; dvimīḍhasya — the son of Dvimīḍha; kṛtimān — Kṛtimān; tat-sutaḥ — the son of Yavīnara; smṛtaḥ — is well known; nāmnā — by name; satyadhṛtiḥ — Satyadhṛti; tasya — of him (Satyadhṛti); dṛḍhanemiḥ — Dṛḍhanemi; supārśva-kṛt — the father of Supārśva.
Translation: 
The son of Dvimīḍha was Yavīnara, whose son was Kṛtimān. The son of Kṛtimān was well known as Satyadhṛti. From Satyadhṛti came a son named Dṛḍhanemi, who became the father of Supārśva.

SB 9.21.28-29

supārśvāt sumatis tasya
 putraḥ sannatimāṁs tataḥ
kṛtī hiraṇyanābhād yo
 yogaṁ prāpya jagau sma ṣaṭ
saṁhitāḥ prācyasāmnāṁ vai
 nīpo hy udgrāyudhas tataḥ
tasya kṣemyaḥ suvīro ’tha
 suvīrasya ripuñjayaḥ
Synonyms: 
supārśvāt — from Supārśva; sumatiḥ — a son named Sumati; tasya putraḥ — his son (Sumati’s son); sannatimān — Sannatimān; tataḥ — from him; kṛtī — a son named Kṛtī; hiraṇyanābhāt — from Lord Brahmā; yaḥ — he who; yogam — mystic power; prāpya — getting; jagau — taught; sma — in the past; ṣaṭ — six; saṁhitāḥ — descriptions; prācyasāmnām — of the Prācyasāma verses of the Sāma Veda; vai — indeed; nīpaḥ — Nīpa; hi — indeed; udgrāyudhaḥ — Udgrāyudha; tataḥ — from him; tasya — his; kṣemyaḥ — Kṣemya; suvīraḥ — Suvīra; atha — thereafter; suvīrasya — of Suvīra; ripuñjayaḥ — a son named Ripuñjaya.
Translation: 
From Supārśva came a son named Sumati, from Sumati came Sannatimān, and from Sannatimān came Kṛtī, who achieved mystic power from Brahmā and taught six saṁhitās of the Prācyasāma verses of the Sāma Veda. The son of Kṛtī was Nīpa; the son of Nīpa, Udgrāyudha; the son of Udgrāyudha, Kṣemya; the son of Kṣemya, Suvīra; and the son of Suvīra, Ripuñjaya.

SB 9.21.30

tato bahuratho nāma
 purumīḍho ’prajo ’bhavat
nalinyām ajamīḍhasya
 nīlaḥ śāntis tu tat-sutaḥ
Synonyms: 
tataḥ — from him (Ripuñjaya); bahurathaḥ — Bahuratha; nāma — named; purumīḍhaḥ — Purumīḍha, the younger brother of Dvimīḍha; aprajaḥ — sonless; abhavat — became; nalinyām — through Nalinī; ajamīḍhasya — of Ajamīḍha; nīlaḥ — Nīla; śāntiḥ — Śānti; tu — then; tat-sutaḥ — the son of Nīla.
Translation: 
From Ripuñjaya came a son named Bahuratha. Purumīḍha was sonless. Ajamīḍha had a son named Nīla by his wife known as Nalinī, and the son of Nīla was Śānti.

SB 9.21.31-33

śānteḥ suśāntis tat-putraḥ
 purujo ’rkas tato ’bhavat
bharmyāśvas tanayas tasya
 pañcāsan mudgalādayaḥ
yavīnaro bṛhadviśvaḥ
 kāmpillaḥ sañjayaḥ sutāḥ
bharmyāśvaḥ prāha putrā me
 pañcānāṁ rakṣaṇāya hi
viṣayāṇām alam ime
 iti pañcāla-saṁjñitāḥ
mudgalād brahma-nirvṛttaṁ
 gotraṁ maudgalya-saṁjñitam
Synonyms: 
śānteḥ — of Śānti; suśāntiḥ — Suśānti; tat-putraḥ — his son; purujaḥ — Puruja; arkaḥ — Arka; tataḥ — from him; abhavat — generated; bharmyāśvaḥ — Bharmyāśva; tanayaḥ — son; tasya — of him; pañca — five sons; āsan — were; mudgala-ādayaḥ — headed by Mudgala; yavīnaraḥ — Yavīnara; bṛhadviśvaḥ — Bṛhadviśva; kāmpillaḥ — Kāmpilla; sañjayaḥ — Sañjaya; sutāḥ — sons; bharmyāśvaḥ — Bharmyāśva; prāha — said; putrāḥ — sons; me — my; pañcānām — of five; rakṣaṇāya — for protection; hi — indeed; viṣayāṇām — of different states; alam — competent; ime — all of them; iti — thus; pañcāla — Pañcāla; saṁjñitāḥ — designated; mudgalāt — from Mudgala; brahma-nirvṛttam — consisting of brāhmaṇas; gotram — a dynasty; maudgalya — Maudgalya; saṁjñitam — so designated.
Translation: 
The son of Śānti was Suśānti, the son of Suśānti was Puruja, and the son of Puruja was Arka. From Arka came Bharmyāśva, and from Bharmyāśva came five sons — Mudgala, Yavīnara, Bṛhadviśva, Kāmpilla and Sañjaya. Bharmyāśva prayed to his sons, “O my sons, please take charge of my five states, for you are quite competent to do so.” Thus his five sons were known as the Pañcālas. From Mudgala came a dynasty of brāhmaṇas known as Maudgalya.

SB 9.21.34

mithunaṁ mudgalād bhārmyād
 divodāsaḥ pumān abhūt
ahalyā kanyakā yasyāṁ
 śatānandas tu gautamāt
Synonyms: 
mithunam — twins, one male and one female; mudgalāt — from Mudgala; bhārmyāt — the son of Bharmyāśva; divodāsaḥ — Divodāsa; pumān — the male one; abhūt — generated; ahalyā — Ahalyā; kanyakā — the female; yasyām — through whom; śatānandaḥ — Śatānanda; tu — indeed; gautamāt — generated by her husband, Gautama.
Translation: 
Mudgala, the son of Bharmyāśva, had twin children, one male and the other female. The male child was named Divodāsa, and the female child was named Ahalyā. From the womb of Ahalyā by the semen of her husband, Gautama, came a son named Śatānanda.

SB 9.21.35

tasya satyadhṛtiḥ putro
 dhanur-veda-viśāradaḥ
śaradvāṁs tat-suto yasmād
 urvaśī-darśanāt kila
śara-stambe ’patad reto
 mithunaṁ tad abhūc chubham
Synonyms: 
tasya — of him (Śatānanda); satyadhṛtiḥ — Satyadhṛti; putraḥ — a son; dhanuḥ-veda-viśāradaḥ — very expert in the art of archery; śaradvān — Śaradvān; tat-sutaḥ — the son of Satyadhṛti; yasmāt — from whom; urvaśī-darśanāt — simply by seeing the celestial Urvaśī; kila — indeed; śara-stambe — on a clump of śara grass; apatat — fell; retaḥ — semen; mithunam — a male and female; tat abhūt — there were born; śubham — all-auspicious.
Translation: 
The son of Śatānanda was Satyadhṛti, who was expert in archery, and the son of Satyadhṛti was Śaradvān. When Śaradvān met Urvaśī, he discharged semen, which fell on a clump of śara grass. From this semen were born two all-auspicious babies, one male and the other female.

SB 9.21.36

tad dṛṣṭvā kṛpayāgṛhṇāc
 chāntanur mṛgayāṁ caran
kṛpaḥ kumāraḥ kanyā ca
 droṇa-patny abhavat kṛpī
Synonyms: 
tat — those twin male and female babies; dṛṣṭvā — seeing; kṛpayā — out of compassion; agṛhṇāt — took; śāntanuḥ — King Śāntanu; mṛgayām — while hunting in the forest; caran — wandering in that way; kṛpaḥ — Kṛpa; kumāraḥ — the male child; kanyā — the female child; ca — also; droṇa-patnī — the wife of Droṇācārya; abhavat — became; kṛpī — named Kṛpī.
Translation: 
While Mahārāja Śāntanu was on a hunting excursion, he saw the male and female children lying in the forest, and out of compassion he took them home. Consequently, the male child was known as Kṛpa, and the female child was named Kṛpī. Kṛpī later became the wife of Droṇācārya.
Purport: 

Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Ninth Canto, Twenty-first Chapter, of the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, entitled “The Dynasty of Bharata.”