dvijo ’dhītyāvabudhya ca
guroḥ kāmaṁ yadīśvaraḥ
gṛhaṁ vanaṁ vā praviśet
pravrajet tatra vā vaset
To study the Vedas and understand them, of course, requires some special intelligence, but the members of the three higher sections of society — namely the brāhmaṇas, kṣatriyas and vaiśyas — must learn the Vedic literatures according to their capability and power to understand. In other words, studying the Vedic literatures is compulsory for everyone but the śūdras and antyajas. The Vedic literature gives the knowledge that can lead one to understand the Absolute Truth — Brahman, Paramātmā or Bhagavān. Gurukula, or the reformatory educational institution, should be used only to understand Vedic knowledge. At the present time there are many educational institutions for training and technology, but such knowledge has nothing to do with understanding of the Absolute Truth. Technology, therefore, is meant for the śūdras, whereas the Vedas are meant for the dvijas. Consequently this verse states, dvijo ’dhītyāvabudhya ca trayīṁ sāṅgopaniṣadam. At the present time, in the Age of Kali, practically everyone is a śūdra, and no one is a dvija. Therefore the condition of society has very much deteriorated.
Another point to be observed from this verse is that from the brahmacārī-āśrama one may accept the sannyāsa-āśrama, vānaprastha-āśrama or gṛhastha-āśrama. It is not compulsory for a brahmacārī to become a gṛhastha. Because the ultimate aim is to understand the Absolute Truth, there is no necessity of going through all the different āśramas. Thus one may proceed to the sannyāsa-āśrama directly from the brahmacārī-āśrama. Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura accepted the sannyāsa-āśrama directly from the brahmacārī-āśrama. In other words, His Divine Grace Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura did not think it compulsory to accept the gṛhastha-āśrama or vānaprastha-āśrama.