SB 5.22: The Orbits of the Planets

In this chapter the orbits of the planets are described. According to the movements of the moon and other planets, all the inhabitants of the universe are prone to auspicious and inauspicious situations. This is referred to as the influence of the stars.

The sun-god, who controls the affairs of the entire universe, especially in regard to heat, light, seasonal changes and so on, is considered an expansion of Nārāyaṇa. He represents the three Vedas — Ṛg, Yajur and Sāma — and therefore he is known as Trayīmaya, the form of Lord Nārāyaṇa. Sometimes the sun-god is also called Sūrya Nārāyaṇa. The sun-god has expanded himself in twelve divisions, and thus he controls the six seasonal changes and causes winter, summer, rain and so on. Yogīs and karmīs following the varṇāśrama institution, who practice haṭha or aṣṭāṅga-yoga or who perform agnihotra sacrifices, worship Sūrya Nārāyaṇa for their own benefit. The demigod Sūrya is always in touch with the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Nārāyaṇa. Residing in outer space, which is in the middle of the universe, between Bhūloka and Bhuvarloka, the sun rotates through the time circle of the zodiac, represented by twelve rāśis, or signs, and assumes different names according to the sign he is in. For the moon, every month is divided into two fortnights. Similarly, according to solar calculations, a month is equal to the time the sun spends in one constellation; two months constitute one season, and there are twelve months in a year. The entire area of the sky is divided into two halves, each representing an ayana, the course traversed by the sun within a period of six months. The sun travels sometimes slowly, sometimes swiftly and sometimes at a moderate speed. In this way it travels within the three worlds, consisting of the heavenly planets, the earthly planets and outer space. These orbits are referred to by great learned scholars by the names Saṁvatsara, Parivatsara, Iḍāvatsara, Anuvatsara and Vatsara.

The moon is situated 100,000 yojanas above the rays of the sunshine. Day and night on the heavenly planets and Pitṛloka are calculated according to its waning and waxing. Above the moon by a distance of 200,000 yojanas are some stars, and above these stars is Śukra-graha (Venus), whose influence is always auspicious for the inhabitants of the entire universe. Above Śukra-graha by 200,000 yojanas is Budha-graha (Mercury), whose influence is sometimes auspicious and sometimes inauspicious. Next, above Budha-graha by 200,000 yojanas, is Aṅgāraka (Mars), which almost always has an unfavorable influence. Above Aṅgāraka by another 200,000 yojanas is the planet called Bṛhaspati-graha (Jupiter), which is always very favorable for qualified brāhmaṇas. Above Bṛhaspati-graha is the planet Śanaiścara (Saturn), which is very inauspicious, and above Saturn is a group of seven stars occupied by great saintly persons who are always thinking of the welfare of the entire universe. These seven stars circumambulate Dhruvaloka, which is the residence of Lord Viṣṇu within this universe.

SB 5.22.1

rājovāca
yad etad bhagavata ādityasya meruṁ dhruvaṁ ca pradakṣiṇena parikrāmato rāśīnām abhimukhaṁ pracalitaṁ cāpradakṣiṇaṁ bhagavatopavarṇitam amuṣya vayaṁ katham anumimīmahīti.
Synonyms: 
rājā uvāca — the King (Mahārāja Parīkṣit) inquired; yat — which; etat — this; bhagavataḥ — of the most powerful; ādityasya — of the sun (Sūrya Nārāyaṇa); merum — the mountain known as Sumeru; dhruvam ca — as well as the planet known as Dhruvaloka; pradakṣiṇena — by placing on the right; parikrāmataḥ — which is going around; rāśīnām — the different signs of the zodiac; abhimukham — facing toward; pracalitam — moving; ca — and; apradakṣiṇam — placing on the left; bhagavatā — by Your Lordship; upavarṇitam — described; amuṣya — of that; vayam — we (the hearer); katham — how; anumimīmahi — can accept it by argument and inference; iti — thus.
Translation: 
King Parīkṣit inquired from Śukadeva Gosvāmī: My dear lord, you have already affirmed the truth that the supremely powerful sun-god travels around Dhruvaloka with both Dhruvaloka and Mount Sumeru on his right. Yet at the same time the sun-god faces the signs of the zodiac and keeps Sumeru and Dhruvaloka on his left. How can we reasonably accept that the sun-god proceeds with Sumeru and Dhruvaloka on both his left and right simultaneously?

SB 5.22.2

sa hovāca
yathā kulāla-cakreṇa bhramatā saha bhramatāṁ tad-āśrayāṇāṁ pipīlikādīnāṁ gatir anyaiva pradeśāntareṣv apy upalabhyamānatvād evaṁ nakṣatra-rāśibhir upalakṣitena kāla-cakreṇa dhruvaṁ meruṁ ca pradakṣiṇena paridhāvatā saha paridhāvamānānāṁ tad-āśrayāṇāṁ sūryādīnāṁ grahāṇāṁ gatir anyaiva nakṣatrāntare rāśy-antare copalabhyamānatvāt.
Synonyms: 
saḥ — Śukadeva Gosvāmī; ha — very clearly; uvāca — answered; yathā — just as; kulāla-cakreṇa — a potter’s wheel; bhramatā — turning around; saha — with; bhramatām — of those turning around; tat-āśrayāṇām — being located on that (wheel); pipīlika-ādīnām — of small ants; gatiḥ — the motion; anyā — other; eva — certainly; pradeśa-antareṣu — in different locations; api — also; upalabhyamānatvāt — due to being experienced; evam — similarly; nakṣatra-rāśibhiḥ — by the stars and signs; upalakṣitena — being seen; kāla-cakreṇa — with the great wheel of time; dhruvam — the star known as Dhruvaloka; merum — the mountain known as Sumeru; ca — and; pradakṣiṇena — on the right; paridhāvatā — going around; saha — with; paridhāvamānānām — of those going around; tat-āśrayāṇām — whose shelter is that wheel of time; sūrya-ādīnām — headed by the sun; grahāṇām — of the planets; gatiḥ — the motion; anyā — other; eva — certainly; nakṣatra-antare — in different stars; rāśi-antare — in different signs; ca — and; upalabhyamānatvāt — due to being observed.
Translation: 
Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī clearly answered: When a potter’s wheel is moving and small ants located on that big wheel are moving with it, one can see that their motion is different from that of the wheel because they appear sometimes on one part of the wheel and sometimes on another. Similarly, the signs and constellations, with Sumeru and Dhruvaloka on their right, move with the wheel of time, and the antlike sun and other planets move with them. The sun and planets, however, are seen in different signs and constellations at different times. This indicates that their motion is different from that of the zodiac and the wheel of time itself.

SB 5.22.3

sa eṣa bhagavān ādi-puruṣa eva sākṣān nārāyaṇo lokānāṁ svastaya ātmānaṁ trayīmayaṁ karma-viśuddhi-nimittaṁ kavibhir api ca vedena vijijñāsyamāno dvādaśadhā vibhajya ṣaṭsu vasantādiṣv ṛtuṣu yathopa-joṣam ṛtu-guṇān vidadhāti.
Synonyms: 
saḥ — that; eṣaḥ — this; bhagavān — the supremely powerful; ādi-puruṣaḥ — the original person; eva — certainly; sākṣāt — directly; nārāyaṇaḥ — the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Nārāyaṇa; lokānām — of all the planets; svastaye — for the benefit; ātmānam — Himself; trayī-mayam — consisting of the three Vedas (Sāma, Yajur and Ṛg); karma-viśuddhi — of purification of fruitive activities; nimittam — the cause; kavibhiḥ — by great saintly persons; api — also; ca — and; vedena — by Vedic knowledge; vijijñāsyamānaḥ — being inquired about; dvādaśa-dhā — in twelve divisions; vibhajya — dividing; ṣaṭsu — in six; vasanta-ādiṣu — headed by spring; ṛtuṣu — seasons; yathā-upajoṣam — according to the enjoyment of their past activities; ṛtu-guṇān — the qualities of the different seasons; vidadhāti — he arranges.
Translation: 
The original cause of the cosmic manifestation is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Nārāyaṇa. When great saintly persons, fully aware of the Vedic knowledge, offered prayers to the Supreme Person, He descended to this material world in the form of the sun to benefit all the planets and purify fruitive activities. He divided Himself into twelve parts and created seasonal forms, beginning with spring. In this way He created the seasonal qualities, such as heat, cold and so on.

SB 5.22.4

tam etam iha puruṣās trayyā vidyayā varṇāśramācārānupathā uccāvacaiḥ karmabhir āmnātair yoga-vitānaiś ca śraddhayā yajanto ’ñjasā śreyaḥ samadhigacchanti.
Synonyms: 
tam — Him (the Supreme Personality of Godhead); etam — this; iha — in this world of mortality; puruṣāḥ — all people; trayyā — having three divisions; vidyayā — by the Vedic knowledge; varṇa-āśrama-ācāra — the practices of the varṇāśrama system; anupathāḥ — following; ucca-avacaiḥ — higher or lower according to the different positions in the varṇāśrama-dharma (brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya and śūdra); karmabhiḥ — by their respective activities; āmnātaiḥ — handed down; yoga-vitānaiḥ — by meditation and other yogic processes; ca — and; śraddhayā — with great faith; yajantaḥ — worshiping; añjasā — without difficulty; śreyaḥ — the ultimate benefit of life; samadhigacchanti — they attain.
Translation: 
According to the system of four varṇas and four āśramas, people generally worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Nārāyaṇa, who is situated as the sun-god. With great faith they worship the Supreme Personality as the Supersoul according to ritualistic ceremonies handed down in the three Vedas, such as agnihotra and similar higher and lower fruitive acts, and according to the process of mystic yoga. In this way they very easily attain the ultimate goal of life.

SB 5.22.5

atha sa eṣa ātmā lokānāṁ dyāv-āpṛthivyor antareṇa nabho-valayasya kālacakra-gato dvādaśa māsān bhuṅkte rāśi-saṁjñān saṁvatsarāvayavān māsaḥ pakṣa-dvayaṁ divā naktaṁ ceti sapādarkṣa-dvayam upadiśanti yāvatā ṣaṣṭham aṁśaṁ bhuñjīta sa vai ṛtur ity upadiśyate saṁvatsarāvayavaḥ.
Synonyms: 
atha — therefore; saḥ — He; eṣaḥ — this; ātmā — the living force; lokānām — of all the three worlds; dyāv-ā-pṛthivyoḥ antareṇa — between the upper and lower portions of the universe; nabhaḥ-valayasya — of outer space; kāla-cakra-gataḥ — positioned in the wheel of time; dvādaśa māsān — twelve months; bhuṅkte — passes; rāśi-saṁjñān — named after the zodiac signs; saṁvatsara-avayavān — the parts of the whole year; māsaḥ — one month; pakṣa-dvayam — two fortnights; divā — a day; naktam ca — and a night; iti — thus; sapāda-ṛkṣa-dvayam — by stellar calculations, two and a quarter constellations; upadiśanti — they instruct; yāvatā — by as much time; ṣaṣṭham aṁśam — one sixth of his orbit; bhuñjīta — pass; saḥ — that portion; vai — indeed; ṛtuḥ — a season; iti — thus; upadiśyate — is instructed; saṁvatsara-avayavaḥ — a part of a year.
Translation: 
The sun-god, who is Nārāyaṇa, or Viṣṇu, the soul of all the worlds, is situated in outer space between the upper and lower portions of the universe. Passing through twelve months on the wheel of time, the sun comes in touch with twelve different signs of the zodiac and assumes twelve different names according to those signs. The aggregate of those twelve months is called a saṁvatsara, or an entire year. According to lunar calculations, two fortnights — one of the waxing moon and the other of the waning — form one month. That same period is one day and night for the planet Pitṛloka. According to stellar calculations, a month equals two and one quarter constellations. When the sun travels for two months, a season passes, and therefore the seasonal changes are considered parts of the body of the year.

SB 5.22.6

atha ca yāvatārdhena nabho-vīthyāṁ pracarati taṁ kālam ayanam ācakṣate.
Synonyms: 
atha — now; ca — also; yāvatā — by as long as; ardhena — half; nabhaḥ-vīthyām — in outer space; pracarati — the sun moves; tam — that; kālam — time; ayanam — ayana; ācakṣate — is said.
Translation: 
Thus the time the sun takes to rotate through half of outer space is called an ayana, or its period of movement [in the north or in the south].

SB 5.22.7

atha ca yāvan nabho-maṇḍalaṁ saha dyāv-āpṛthivyor maṇḍalābhyāṁ kārtsnyena sa ha bhuñjīta taṁ kālaṁ saṁvatsaraṁ parivatsaram iḍāvatsaram anuvatsaraṁ vatsaram iti bhānor māndya-śaighrya-sama-gatibhiḥ samāmananti.
Synonyms: 
atha — now; ca — also; yāvat — as long as; nabhaḥ-maṇḍalam — outer space, between the upper and lower world; saha — along with; dyau — of the upper world; āpṛthivyoḥ — of the lower world; maṇḍalābhyām — the spheres; kārtsnyena — entirely; saḥ — he; ha — indeed; bhuñjīta — may pass through; tam — that; kālam — time; saṁvatsaram — Saṁvatsara; parivatsaram — Parivatsara; iḍāvatsaram — Iḍāvatsara; anuvatsaram — Anuvatsara; vatsaram — Vatsara; iti — thus; bhānoḥ — of the sun; māndya — slow; śaighrya — speedy; sama — and equal; gatibhiḥ — by the speeds; samāmananti — the experienced scholars describe.
Translation: 
The sun-god has three speeds — slow, fast and moderate. The time he takes to travel entirely around the spheres of heaven, earth and space at these three speeds is referred to, by learned scholars, by the five names Saṁvatsara, Parivatsara, Iḍāvatsara, Anuvatsara and Vatsara.
Purport: 

According to solar astronomical calculations, each year extends six days beyond the calendar year, and according to lunar calculations, each year is six days shorter. Therefore, because of the movements of the sun and moon, there is a difference of twelve days between the solar and lunar years. As the Saṁvatsara, Parivatsara, Iḍāvatsara, Anuvatsara and Vatsara pass by, two extra months are added within each five years. This makes a sixth saṁvatsara, but because that saṁvatsara is extra, the solar system is calculated according to the above five names.

SB 5.22.8

evaṁ candramā arka-gabhastibhya upariṣṭāl lakṣa-yojanata upalabhyamāno ’rkasya saṁvatsara-bhuktiṁ pakṣābhyāṁ māsa-bhuktiṁ sapādarkṣābhyāṁ dinenaiva pakṣa-bhuktim agracārī drutatara-gamano bhuṅkte.
Synonyms: 
evam — thus; candramā — the moon; arka-gabhastibhyaḥ — from the rays of the sunshine; upariṣṭāt — above; lakṣa-yojanataḥ — by a measurement of 100,000 yojanas; upalabhyamānaḥ — being situated; arkasya — of the sun globe; saṁvatsara-bhuktim — the passage of one year of enjoyment; pakṣābhyām — by two fortnights; māsa-bhuktim — the passage of one month; sapāda-ṛkṣābhyām — by two and a quarter days; dinena — by a day; eva — only; pakṣa-bhuktim — the passage of a fortnight; agracārī — moving impetuously; druta-tara-gamanaḥ — passing more speedily; bhuṅkte — passes through.
Translation: 
Above the rays of the sunshine by a distance of 100,000 yojanas [800,000 miles] is the moon, which travels at a speed faster than that of the sun. In two lunar fortnights the moon travels through the equivalent of a saṁvatsara of the sun, in two and a quarter days it passes through a month of the sun, and in one day it passes through a fortnight of the sun.
Purport: 

When we take into account that the moon is 100,000 yojanas, or 800,000 miles, above the rays of the sunshine, it is very surprising that the modern excursions to the moon could be possible. Since the moon is so distant, how space vehicles could go there is a doubtful mystery. Modern scientific calculations are subject to one change after another, and therefore they are uncertain. We have to accept the calculations of the Vedic literature. These Vedic calculations are steady; the astronomical calculations made long ago and recorded in the Vedic literature are correct even now. Whether the Vedic calculations or modern ones are better may remain a mystery for others, but as far as we are concerned, we accept the Vedic calculations to be correct.

SB 5.22.9

atha cāpūryamāṇābhiś ca kalābhir amarāṇāṁ kṣīyamāṇābhiś ca kalābhiḥ pitṝṇām aho-rātrāṇi pūrva-pakṣāpara-pakṣābhyāṁ vitanvānaḥ sarva-jīva-nivaha-prāṇo jīvaś caikam ekaṁ nakṣatraṁ triṁśatā muhūrtair bhuṅkte.
Synonyms: 
atha — thus; ca — also; āpūryamāṇābhiḥ — gradually increasing; ca — and; kalābhiḥ — by the parts of the moon; amarāṇām — of the demigods; kṣīyamāṇābhiḥ — by gradually decreasing; ca — and; kalābhiḥ — by parts of the moon; pitṝṇām — of those on the planet known as Pitṛloka; ahaḥ-rātrāṇi — the days and nights; pūrva-pakṣa-apara-pakṣābhyām — by the period of waxing and waning; vitanvānaḥ — distributing; sarva-jīva-nivaha — of the total living entities; prāṇaḥ — the life; jīvaḥ — the chief living being; ca — also; ekam ekam — one after another; nakṣatram — a constellation of stars; triṁśatā — by thirty; muhūrtaiḥ — muhūrtas; bhuṅkte — passes through.
Translation: 
When the moon is waxing, the illuminating portions of it increase daily, thus creating day for the demigods and night for the pitās. When the moon is waning, however, it causes night for the demigods and day for the pitās. In this way the moon passes through each constellation of stars in thirty muhūrtas [an entire day]. The moon is the source of nectarean coolness that influences the growth of food grains, and therefore the moon-god is considered the life of all living entities. He is consequently called Jīva, the chief living being within the universe.

SB 5.22.10

ya eṣa ṣoḍaśa-kalaḥ puruṣo bhagavān manomayo ’nnamayo ’mṛtamayo deva-pitṛ-manuṣya-bhūta-paśu-pakṣi-sarīsṛpa-vīrudhāṁ prāṇāpy āyana-śīlatvāt sarvamaya iti varṇayanti.
Synonyms: 
yaḥ — that; eṣaḥ — this; ṣoḍaśa-kalaḥ — having all sixteen parts (the full moon); puruṣaḥ — the person; bhagavān — having great power received from the Supreme Personality of Godhead; manaḥ-mayaḥ — the predominating deity of the mind; anna-mayaḥ — the source of potency for food grains; amṛta-mayaḥ — the source of the substance of life; deva — of all the demigods; pitṛ — of all the inhabitants of Pitṛloka; manuṣya — all human beings; bhūta — all living entities; paśu — of the animals; pakṣi — of the birds; sarīsṛpa — of the reptiles; vīrudhām — of all kinds of herbs and plants; prāṇa — life air; api — certainly; āyana-śīlatvāt — due to refreshing; sarva-mayaḥ — all-pervading; iti — thus; varṇayanti — the learned scholars describe.
Translation: 
Because the moon is full of all potentialities, it represents the influence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The moon is the predominating deity of everyone’s mind, and therefore the moon-god is called Manomaya. He is also called Annamaya because he gives potency to all herbs and plants, and he is called Amṛtamaya because he is the source of life for all living entities. The moon pleases the demigods, pitās, human beings, animals, birds, reptiles, trees, plants and all other living entities. Everyone is satisfied by the presence of the moon. Therefore the moon is also called Sarvamaya [all-pervading].

SB 5.22.11

tata upariṣṭād dvi-lakṣa-yojanato nakṣatrāṇi meruṁ dakṣiṇenaiva kālāyana īśvara-yojitāni sahābhijitāṣṭā-viṁśatiḥ.
Synonyms: 
tataḥ — from that region of the moon; upariṣṭāt — above; dvi-lakṣa-yojanataḥ — 200,000 yojanas; nakṣatrāṇi — many stars; merum — Sumeru Mountain; dakṣiṇena eva — to the right side; kāla-ayane — in the wheel of time; īśvara-yojitāni — attached by the Supreme Personality of Godhead; saha — with; abhijitā — the star known as Abhijit; aṣṭā-viṁśatiḥ — twenty-eight.
Translation: 
There are many stars located 200,000 yojanas [1,600,000 miles] above the moon. By the supreme will of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, they are fixed to the wheel of time, and thus they rotate with Mount Sumeru on their right, their motion being different from that of the sun. There are twenty-eight important stars, headed by Abhijit.
Purport: 

The stars referred to herein are 1,600,000 miles above the sun, and thus they are 4,000,000 miles above the earth.

SB 5.22.12

tata upariṣṭād uśanā dvi-lakṣa-yojanata upalabhyate purataḥ paścāt sahaiva vārkasya śaighrya-māndya-sāmyābhir gatibhir arkavac carati lokānāṁ nityadānukūla eva prāyeṇa varṣayaṁś cāreṇānumīyate sa vṛṣṭi-viṣṭambha-grahopaśamanaḥ.
Synonyms: 
tataḥ — from that bunch of stars; upariṣṭāt — above; uśanā — Venus; dvi-lakṣa-yojanataḥ — 200,000 yojanas (1,600,000 miles); upalabhyate — is experienced; purataḥ — in front; paścāt — behind; saha — along with; eva — indeed; — and; arkasya — of the sun; śaighrya — speedy; māndya — slow; sāmyābhiḥ — equal; gatibhiḥ — the movements; arkavat — exactly like the sun; carati — rotates; lokānām — of all the planets within the universe; nityadā — constantly; anukūlaḥ — offering favorable conditions; eva — indeed; prāyeṇa — almost always; varṣayan — causing rainfall; cāreṇa — by infusing the clouds; anumīyate — is perceived; saḥ — he (Venus); vṛṣṭi-viṣṭambha — obstacles to rainfall; graha-upaśamanaḥ — nullifying planets.
Translation: 
Some 1,600,000 miles above this group of stars is the planet Venus, which moves at almost exactly the same pace as the sun according to swift, slow and moderate movements. Sometimes Venus moves behind the sun, sometimes in front of the sun and sometimes along with it. Venus nullifies the influence of planets that are obstacles to rainfall. Consequently its presence causes rainfall, and it is therefore considered very favorable for all living beings within this universe. This has been accepted by learned scholars.

SB 5.22.13

uśanasā budho vyākhyātas tata upariṣṭād dvi-lakṣa-yojanato budhaḥ soma-suta upalabhyamānaḥ prāyeṇa śubha-kṛd yadārkād vyatiricyeta tadātivātābhra-prāyānāvṛṣṭy-ādi-bhayam āśaṁsate.
Synonyms: 
uśanasā — with Venus; budhaḥ — Mercury; vyākhyātaḥ — explained; tataḥ — from that (Venus); upariṣṭāt — above; dvi-lakṣa-yojanataḥ — 1,600,000 miles; budhaḥ — Mercury; soma-sutaḥ — the son of the moon; upalabhyamānaḥ — is situated; prāyeṇa — almost always; śubha-kṛt — very auspicious to the inhabitants of the universe; yadā — when; arkāt — from the sun; vyatiricyeta — is separated; tadā — at that time; ativāta — of cyclones and other bad effects; abhra — clouds; prāya — almost always; anāvṛṣṭi-ādi — such as scarcity of rain; bhayam — fearful conditions; āśaṁsate — expands.
Translation: 
Mercury is described to be similar to Venus, in that it moves sometimes behind the sun, sometimes in front of the sun and sometimes along with it. It is 1,600,000 miles above Venus, or 7,200,000 miles above earth. Mercury, which is the son of the moon, is almost always very auspicious for the inhabitants of the universe, but when it does not move along with the sun, it forbodes cyclones, dust, irregular rainfall, and waterless clouds. In this way it creates fearful conditions due to inadequate or excessive rainfall.

SB 5.22.14

ata ūrdhvam aṅgārako ’pi yojana-lakṣa-dvitaya upalabhyamānas tribhis tribhiḥ pakṣair ekaikaśo rāśīn dvādaśānubhuṅkte yadi na vakreṇābhivartate prāyeṇāśubha-graho ’gha-śaṁsaḥ.
Synonyms: 
ataḥ — from this; ūrdhvam — above; aṅgārakaḥ — Mars; api — also; yojana-lakṣa-dvitaye — at a distance of 1,600,000 miles; upalabhyamānaḥ — is situated; tribhiḥ tribhiḥ — with each three and three; pakṣaiḥ — fortnights; eka-ekaśaḥ — one after another; rāśīn — the signs; dvādaśa — twelve; anubhuṅkte — passes through; yadi — if; na — not; vakreṇa — with a curve; abhivartate — approaches; prāyeṇa — almost always; aśubha-grahaḥ — an unfavorable, inauspicious planet; agha-śaṁsaḥ — creating trouble.
Translation: 
Situated 1,600,000 miles above Mercury, or 8,800,000 miles above earth, is the planet Mars. If this planet does not travel in a crooked way, it crosses through each sign of the zodiac in three fortnights and in this way travels through all twelve, one after another. It almost always creates unfavorable conditions in respect to rainfall and other influences.

SB 5.22.15

tata upariṣṭād dvi-lakṣa-yojanāntara-gatā bhagavān bṛhaspatir ekaikasmin rāśau parivatsaraṁ parivatsaraṁ carati yadi na vakraḥ syāt prāyeṇānukūlo brāhmaṇa-kulasya.
Synonyms: 
tataḥ — that (Mars); upariṣṭāt — above; dvi-lakṣa-yojana-antara-gatāḥ — situated at a distance of 1,600,000 miles; bhagavān — the most powerful planet; bṛhaspatiḥ — Jupiter; eka-ekasmin — in one after another; rāśau — sign; parivatsaram parivatsaram — for the period of Parivatsara; carati — moves; yadi — if; na — not; vakraḥ — curved; syāt — becomes; prāyeṇa — almost always; anukūlaḥ — very favorable; brāhmaṇa-kulasya — to the brāhmaṇas of the universe.
Translation: 
Situated 1,600,000 miles above Mars, or 10,400,000 miles above earth, is the planet Jupiter, which travels through one sign of the zodiac within the period of a Parivatsara. If its movement is not curved, the planet Jupiter is very favorable to the brāhmaṇas of the universe.

SB 5.22.16

tata upariṣṭād yojana-lakṣa-dvayāt pratīyamānaḥ śanaiścara ekaikasmin rāśau triṁśan māsān vilambamānaḥ sarvān evānuparyeti tāvadbhir anuvatsaraiḥ prāyeṇa hi sarveṣām aśāntikaraḥ.
Synonyms: 
tataḥ — that (Jupiter); upariṣṭāt — above; yojana-lakṣa-dvayāt — by a distance of 1,600,000 miles; pratīyamānaḥ — is situated; śanaiścaraḥ — the planet Saturn; eka-ekasmin — in one after another; rāśau — zodiac signs; triṁśat māsān — for a period of thirty months in each; vilam-bamānaḥ — lingering; sarvān — all twelve signs of the zodiac; eva — certainly; anuparyeti — passes through; tāvadbhiḥ — by so many; anuvatsaraiḥ — Anuvatsaras; prāyeṇa — almost always; hi — indeed; sarveṣām — to all the inhabitants; aśāntikaraḥ — very troublesome.
Translation: 
Situated 1,600,000 miles above Jupiter, or 12,000,000 miles above earth, is the planet Saturn, which passes through one sign of the zodiac in thirty months and covers the entire zodiac circle in thirty Anuvatsaras. This planet is always very inauspicious for the universal situation.

SB 5.22.17

tata uttarasmād ṛṣaya ekādaśa-lakṣa-yojanāntara upalabhyante ya eva lokānāṁ śam anubhāvayanto bhagavato viṣṇor yat paramaṁ padaṁ pradakṣiṇaṁ prakramanti.
Synonyms: 
tataḥ — the planet Saturn; uttarasmāt — above; ṛṣayaḥ — great saintly sages; ekādaśa-lakṣa-yojana-antare — at a distance of 1,100,000 yojanas; upalabhyante — are situated; ye — all of them; eva — indeed; lokānām — for all the inhabitants of the universe; śam — the good fortune; anubhāvayantaḥ — always thinking of; bhagavataḥ — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; viṣṇoḥ — Lord Viṣṇu; yat — which; paramam padam — the supreme abode; pradakṣiṇam — placing on the right; prakramanti — circumambulate.
Translation: 
Situated 8,800,000 miles above Saturn, or 20,800,000 miles above earth, are the seven saintly sages, who are always thinking of the well-being of the inhabitants of the universe. They circumambulate the supreme abode of Lord Viṣṇu, known as Dhruvaloka, the polestar.
Purport: 

Śrīla Madhvācārya quotes the following verse from the Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa:

jñānānandātmano viṣṇuḥ
 śiśumāra-vapuṣy atha
ūrdhva-lokeṣu sa vyāpta
 ādityādyās tad-āśritā

“Lord Viṣṇu, who is the source of knowledge and transcendental bliss, has assumed the form of Śiśumāra in the seventh heaven, which is situated in the topmost level of the universe. All the other planets, beginning with the sun, exist under the shelter of this Śiśumāra planetary system.”

Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports of the Fifth Canto, Twenty-second Chapter, of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, entitled “The Orbits of the Planets.”