tamo ’jñānam ihocyate
svabhāvaḥ sūtram eva ca
The impetus for the interaction of the material elements is the forward movement of time. Because time is passing, the embryo grows within the womb, gradually comes out, grows up, produces by-products, dwindles and dies. All of this is due to the pushing of time. In the absence of the time factor, the material elements do not interact but remain inert in the form of pradhāna. Lord Kṛṣṇa is establishing the basic categories of the material world so that human beings can conceive of the Lord’s creation. Were the categories not condensed, analysis and conceptualization would be impossible, since the Lord’s potencies are infinite. Although there are numerous divisions of material elements within the basic divisions, the spirit soul is always to be understood as a distinct transcendental element, meant for residence in the kingdom of God.