SB 10.90: Summary of Lord Kṛṣṇa’s Glories

This chapter describes how Lord Kṛṣṇa enjoyed with His queens in the lakes of Dvārakā. It also relates the queens’ ecstatic prayers in the mood of intense separation from Him, and summarizes the Lord’s pastimes.

Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa continued to reside in His opulent capital of Dvārakā, together with the Yadus and His queens. He would enjoy sporting with His wives in the ponds on the palace grounds, squirting water on them with a syringe and being squirted in turn. With His graceful gestures, loving words and sidelong glances, He would enchant their hearts. In this way the queens would become totally absorbed in thoughts of Him. Sometimes, after playing with the Lord in the water, they would address various creatures — kurarī and cakravāka birds, the ocean, the moon, a cloud, a cuckoo, a mountain, a river and so on — declaring their great attachment to Śrī Kṛṣṇa on the pretext of commiserating with these creatures.

Lord Kṛṣṇa begot ten sons in the womb of each of His queens. Among these sons, Pradyumna was foremost, being equal to His father in all transcendental qualities. Pradyumna married Rukmī’s daughter, and from her womb Aniruddha was born. Aniruddha then married Rukmī’s granddaughter and begot Vajra, who was the only Yadu prince to survive the battle of iron clubs at Prabhāsa. From Vajra descended the remainder of the Yadu dynasty, beginning with Pratibāhu. The members of the Yadu dynasty are virtually innumerable; indeed, just to educate their children the Yadus employed 38,800,000 teachers.

Before Lord Kṛṣṇa appeared, many demons took birth in human families to harass the people of the world and destroy brahminical culture. To subdue them, the Lord ordered the demigods to descend into the Yadu dynasty, which then expanded into 101 clans. All of the Yadus recognized Śrī Kṛṣṇa as the Supreme Personality of Godhead and had unflinching faith in Him. While resting, eating, walking and so on, which they often did in His company, they would forget their own bodies in their transcendental happiness.

The Tenth Canto concludes with this promise of success for the sincere hearer: “By regularly hearing, chanting and meditating on the beautiful topics of Lord Mukunda with ever-increasing sincerity, a mortal being will attain the divine kingdom of the Lord, where the inviolable power of death holds no sway.”

SB 10.90.1-7

śrī-śuka uvāca
sukhaṁ sva-puryāṁ nivasan
 dvārakāyāṁ śriyaḥ patiḥ
 juṣṭāyāṁ vṛṣṇi-puṅgavaiḥ
strībhiś cottama-veṣābhir
kandukādibhir harmyeṣu
 krīḍantībhis taḍid-dyubhiḥ
nityaṁ saṅkula-mārgāyāṁ
 mada-cyudbhir mataṅ-gajaiḥ
sv-alaṅkṛtair bhaṭair aśvai
 rathaiś ca kanakojjvalaiḥ
 nāditāyāṁ samantataḥ
reme ṣoḍaśa-sāhasra-
 patnīnāṁ eka-vallabhaḥ
tāvad vicitra-rūpo ’sau
 tad-geheṣu maharddhiṣu
 kūjad-dvija-kuleṣu ca
vijahāra vigāhyāmbho
 hradinīṣu mahodayaḥ
 parirabdhaś ca yoṣitām
śrī-śukaḥ uvāca — Śukadeva Gosvāmī said; sukham — happily; sva — in His own; puryām — city; nivasan — residing; dvārakāyām — in Dvārakā; śriyaḥ — of the goddess of fortune; patiḥ — the master; sarva — all; sampat — in opulent features; samṛddhāyām — which was rich; juṣṭāyām — populated; vṛṣṇi-puṅgavaiḥ — by the most prominent of the Vṛṣṇis; strībhiḥ — by women; ca — and; uttama — excellent; veṣābhiḥ — whose dress; nava — new; yauvana — of youth; kāntibhiḥ — whose beauty; kanduka-ādibhiḥ — with balls and other toys; harmyeṣu — on the rooftops; krīḍantībhiḥ — playing; taḍit — of lightning; dyubhiḥ — whose effulgence; nityam — always; saṅkula — crowded; mārgāyām — whose roads; mada-cyudbhiḥ — exuding mada; matam — intoxicated; gajaiḥ — with elephants; su — well; alaṅkṛtaiḥ — ornamented; bhaṭaiḥ — with foot-soldiers; aśvaiḥ — horses; rathaiḥ — chariots; ca — and; kanaka — with gold; ujjvalaiḥ — brilliant; udyāna — with gardens; upavana — and parks; āḍhyāyām — endowed; puṣpita — flowering; druma — of trees; rājiṣu — which had rows; nirviśat — entering (therein); bhṛṅga — by bees; vihagaiḥ — and birds; nāditāyām — filled with sound; samantataḥ — on all sides; reme — He enjoyed; ṣoḍaśa — sixteen; sāhasra — thousand; patnīnām — of wives; eka — the only; vallabhaḥ — beloved; tāvat — that many; vicitra — variegated; rūpaḥ — having personal forms; asau — He; tat — their; geheṣu — in the residences; mahā-ṛddhiṣu — richly furnished; protphulla — blooming; utpala — of water lilies; kahlāra — white lotuses; kumuda — night-blooming lotuses; ambhoja — and day-blooming lotuses; reṇubhiḥ — by the pollen; vāsita — made aromatic; amala — pure; toyeṣu — in bodies of water; kūjat — cooing; dvija — of birds; kuleṣu — where there were flocks; ca — and; vijahāra — He sported; vigāhya — diving; ambhaḥ — into the water; hradinīṣu — in rivers; mahā-udayaḥ — the all-powerful Lord; kuca — from their breasts; kuṅkuma — by the red cosmetic powder; lipta — smeared; aṅgaḥ — His body; parirabdhaḥ — embraced; ca — and; yoṣitām — by the women.
Śukadeva Gosvamī said: The master of the goddess of fortune resided happily in His capital city, Dvārakā, which was endowed with all opulences and populated by the most eminent Vṛṣṇis and their gorgeously dressed wives. When these beautiful women in the bloom of youth would play on the city’s rooftops with balls and other toys, they shone like flashing lightning. The main streets of the city were always crowded with intoxicated elephants exuding mada, and also with cavalry, richly adorned infantrymen, and soldiers riding chariots brilliantly decorated with gold. Gracing the city were many gardens and parks with rows of flowering trees, where bees and birds would gather, filling all directions with their songs.

Lord Kṛṣṇa was the sole beloved of His sixteen thousand wives. Expanding Himself into that many forms, He enjoyed with each of His queens in her own richly furnished residence. On the grounds of these palaces were clear ponds fragrant with the pollen of blooming utpala, kahlāra, kumuda and ambhoja lotuses and filled with flocks of cooing birds. The almighty Lord would enter those ponds, and also various rivers, and enjoy sporting in the water while His wives embraced Him, leaving the red kuṅkuma from their breasts smeared on His body..

One rule of poetic composition practiced by Vaiṣṇava authors is madhureṇa samāpayet: “A literary work should conclude in a mood of special sweetness.” Śrīla Śukadeva Gosvāmī, the most tasteful narrator of transcendental topics, has accordingly included in this last chapter of the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam a description of Lord Kṛṣṇa’s water sports in the attractive setting of Dvārakā, followed by the rapturous prayers of the Lord’s queens.

SB 10.90.8-9

upagīyamāno gandharvair
vādayadbhir mudā vīṇāṁ
sicyamāno ’cyutas tābhir
 hasantībhiḥ sma recakaiḥ
pratiṣiñcan vicikrīḍe
 yakṣībhir yakṣa-rāḍ iva
upagīyamānaḥ — being glorified by song; gandharvaiḥ — by Gandharvas; mṛdaṅga-paṇava-ānakān — mṛdaṅga, paṇava and ānaka drums; vādayadbhiḥ — who were playing; mudā — joyfully; vīṇām — vīṇas; sūta-māgadha-vandibhiḥ — by Sūta, Māgadha and Vandi reciters; sicyamānaḥ — being squirted with water; acyutaḥ — Lord Kṛṣṇa; tābhiḥ — by them (His wives); hasantībhiḥ — who were laughing; sma — indeed; recakaiḥ — with syringes; pratiṣiñcan — squirting back at them; vicikrīḍe — He sported; yakṣībhiḥ — with Yakṣī nymphs; yakṣa-rāṭ — the lord of the Yakṣas (Kuvera); iva — like.
As Gandharvas joyfully sang His praises to the accompaniment of mṛdaṅga, paṇava and ānaka drums, and as professional reciters known as Sūtas, Māgadhas and Vandīs played vīṇās and recited poems praising Him, Lord Kṛṣṇa would play with His wives in the water. Laughing, the queens would squirt water on Him with syringes, and He would squirt them back. Thus Kṛṣṇa would sport with His queens in the same way that the lord of the Yakṣas sports with the Yakṣī nymphs.

SB 10.90.10

tāḥ klinna-vastra-vivṛtoru-kuca-pradeśāḥ
 siñcantya uddhṛta-bṛhat-kavara-prasūnāḥ
kāntaṁ sma recaka-jihīrṣayayopaguhya
 jāta-smarotsmaya-lasad-vadanā virejuḥ
tāḥ — they (Lord Kṛṣṇa’s queens); klinna — wet; vastra — whose clothes; vivṛta — revealed; ūru — thighs; kuca — of their breasts; pradeśāḥ — the area; siñcantyaḥ — sprinkling; uddhṛta — scattered; bṛhat — large; kavara — from the braids of their hair; prasūnāḥ — whose flowers; kāntam — their consort; sma — indeed; recaka — His syringe; jihīrṣayayā — with the desire of taking away; upaguhya — embracing; jāta — arisen; smara — of feelings of lust; utsmaya — with wide smiles; lasad — glowing; vadanāḥ — whose faces; virejuḥ — they appeared resplendent.
Under the drenched clothing of the queens, their thighs and breasts would become visible. The flowers tied in their large braids would scatter as they sprayed water on their consort, and on the plea of trying to take away His syringe, they would embrace Him. By His touch their lusty feelings would increase, causing their faces to beam with smiles. Thus Lord Kṛṣṇa’s queens shone with resplendent beauty.

SB 10.90.11

kṛṣṇas tu tat-stana-viṣajjita-kuṅkuma-srak
siñcan muhur yuvatibhiḥ pratiṣicyamāno
 reme kareṇubhir ivebha-patiḥ parītaḥ
kṛṣṇaḥ — Lord Kṛṣṇa; tu — and; tat — their; stana — from the breasts; viṣajjita — becoming attached; kuṅkuma — the kuṅkuma powder; srak — on whose flower garland; krīḍā — in the sport; abhiṣaṅga — due to His absorption; dhuta — shaken; kuntala — of the locks of hair; vṛnda — of the mass; bandhaḥ — the arrangement; siñcan — sprinkling; muhuḥ — repeatedly; yuvatibhiḥ — by the young women; pratiṣicyamānaḥ — being sprinkled in return; reme — He enjoyed; kareṇubhiḥ — by she-elephants; iva — as; ibha-patiḥ — the king of elephants; parītaḥ — surrounded.
Lord Kṛṣṇa’s flower garland would become smeared with kuṅkuma from their breasts, and His abundant locks of hair would become disheveled as a result of His absorption in the game. As the Lord repeatedly sprayed His young consorts and they sprayed Him in turn, He enjoyed Himself like the king of elephants enjoying in the company of his bevy of she-elephants.

SB 10.90.12

naṭānāṁ nartakīnāṁ ca
 kṛṣṇo ’dāt tasya ca striyaḥ
naṭānām — to the male performers; nartakīnām — the female performers; ca — and; gīta — by singing; vādya — and playing musical instruments; upajīvinām — who earned their livelihoods; krīḍā — from His sports; alaṅkāra — the ornaments; vāsāṁsi — and garments; kṛṣṇaḥ — Lord Kṛṣṇa; adāt — gave; tasya — His; ca — and; striyaḥ — wives.
Afterward, Lord Kṛṣṇa and His wives would give the ornaments and clothing they had worn during their water sports to the male and female performers, who earned their livelihood from singing and from playing instrumental music.

SB 10.90.13

kṛṣṇasyaivaṁ viharato
 strīṇāṁ kila hṛtā dhiyaḥ
kṛṣṇasya — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; evam — thus; viharataḥ — who was sporting; gati — by the movements; ālāpa — conversing; īkṣita — glancing; smitaiḥ — and smiling; narma — by the jokes; kṣveli — playful exchanges; pariṣvaṅgaiḥ — and embraces; strīṇām — of the wives; kila — indeed; hṛtāḥ — stolen; dhiyaḥ — the hearts.
In this way Lord Kṛṣṇa would sport with His queens, totally captivating their hearts with His gestures, talks, glances and smiles, and also with His jokes, playful exchanges and embraces.

SB 10.90.14

ūcur mukundaika-dhiyo
 gira unmatta-vaj jaḍam
cintayantyo ’ravindākṣaṁ
 tāni me gadataḥ śṛṇu
ūcuḥ — they spoke; mukunda — upon Lord Kṛṣṇa; eka — exclusively; dhiyaḥ — whose minds; giraḥ — words; unmatta — crazed persons; vat — as; jaḍam — stunned; cintayantyaḥ — thinking; aravinda-akṣam — about the lotus-eyed Lord; tāni — these (words); me — from me; gadataḥ — who am telling; śṛṇu — please hear.
The queens would become stunned in ecstatic trance, their minds absorbed in Kṛṣṇa alone. Then, thinking of their lotus-eyed Lord, they would speak as if insane. Please hear these words from me as I relate them.

Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura explains that this superficial appearance of insanity in Lord Kṛṣṇa’s queens, as if they had become intoxicated by dhattūra or some other hallucinogenic drug, was in fact the manifestation of the sixth progressive stage of pure love of Godhead, technically known as prema-vaicitrya. Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī refers to this variety of anurāga in his Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi (15.134):

priyasya sannikarṣe ’pi
yā viśleṣa-dhiyārtis tat
 prema-vaicitryam ucyate

“When, as a natural by-product of one’s extreme love, one feels the distress of separation even in the direct presence of the beloved, this state is called prema-vaicitrya.

SB 10.90.15

mahiṣya ūcuḥ
kurari vilapasi tvaṁ vīta-nidrā na śeṣe
 svapiti jagati rātryām īśvaro gupta-bodhaḥ
vayam iva sakhi kaccid gāḍha-nirviddha-cetā
mahiṣyaḥ ūcuḥ — the queens said; kurari — O kurarī bird (female osprey); vilapasi — are lamenting; tvam — you; vīta — deprived; nidrā — of sleep; na śeṣe — you cannot rest; svapiti — is sleeping; jagati — (somewhere) in the world; rātryām — during the night; īśvaraḥ — the Supreme Lord; gupta — hidden; bodhaḥ — whose whereabouts; vayam — we; iva — just as; sakhi — O friend; kaccit — whether; gāḍha — deeply; nirviddha — pierced; cetāḥ — whose heart; nalina — (like) a lotus; nayana — whose eyes; hāsa — smiling; udāra — liberal; līlā — playful; īkṣitena — by the glance.
The queens said: O kurarī bird, you are lamenting. Now it is night, and somewhere in this world the Supreme Lord is asleep in a hidden place. But you are wide awake, O friend, unable to fall asleep. Is it that, like us, you have had your heart pierced to the core by the lotus-eyed Lord’s munificent, playful smiling glances?

Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī explains that the transcendental madness (unmāda) of the queens filled them with such ecstasy that they saw their own mood reflected in everyone and everything else. Here they point out to the kurarī bird, whom they take to be sorrowing over separation from Lord Kṛṣṇa, that if the Lord actually had any concern for her or themselves, He would not be sleeping comfortably at that moment. They warn the kurarī not to expect Kṛṣṇa to hear her lamentation and show some mercy. In case the kurarī might think that Kṛṣṇa is sleeping with His queens, they deny this by saying that He is gupta-bodha: His whereabouts are unknown to them. He is out in the world somewhere this night, but they have no idea where to go looking for Him. “Ah, dear bird,” they cry, “even though you are a simple creature, your heart has been deeply pierced, just like ours. You must have had some contact, then, with our Kṛṣṇa. What keeps you from giving up your hopeless attachment to Him?”

SB 10.90.16

netre nimīlayasi naktam adṛṣṭa-bandhus
 tvaṁ roravīṣi karuṇaṁ bata cakravāki
dāsyaṁ gata vayam ivācyuta-pāda-juṣṭāṁ
 kiṁ vā srajaṁ spṛhayase kavareṇa voḍhum
netre — your eyes; nimīlayasi — you keep closed; naktam — during the night; adṛṣṭa — not seen; bandhuḥ — whose beloved; tvam — you; roravīṣi — are crying; karuṇam — pitifully; bata — alas; cakravāki — O cakravākī (female crane); dāsyam — servitude; gatā — attained; vayam iva — like us; acyuta — of Kṛṣṇa; pāda — by the feet; juṣṭām — honored; kim — perhaps; — or; srajam — the flower garland; spṛhayase — you desire; kavareṇa — in the braid of your hair; voḍhum — to carry.
Poor cakravākī, even after closing your eyes, you continue to cry pitifully through the night for your unseen mate. Or is it that, like us, you have become the servant of Acyuta and hanker to wear in your braided hair the garland He has blessed with the touch of His feet?

SB 10.90.17

bho bhoḥ sadā niṣṭanase udanvann
 alabdha-nidro ’dhigata-prajāgaraḥ
kim vā mukundāpahṛtātma-lāñchanaḥ
 prāptāṁ daśāṁ tvaṁ ca gato duratyayām
bhoḥ — dear; bhoḥ — dear; sadā — always; niṣṭanase — you are making a loud sound; udanvan — O ocean; alabdha — not obtaining; nidraḥ — sleep; adhigata — experiencing; prajāgaraḥ — insomnia; kim — or else, perhaps; mukunda — by Kṛṣṇa; apahṛta — taken away; ātma — personal; lāñchanaḥ — marks; prāptām — obtained (by us); daśām — the condition; tvam — you; ca — also; gataḥ — have reached; duratyayām — impossible to become freed from.
Dear ocean, you are always roaring, not sleeping at night. Are you suffering insomnia? Or is it that, as with us, Mukunda has taken your insignias and you are hopeless of retrieving them?

Śrīla Śrīdhara Svāmī states that Lord Kṛṣṇa’s queens here confuse the sea surrounding Dvārakā with the celestial Ocean of Milk, from which Lakṣmī and the Kaustubha gem arose long ago. These were taken (apahṛta) by Lord Viṣṇu, and they now reside on His chest. The queens presume that the ocean is anxious to see once again the mark of Lakṣmī’s residence and the Kaustubha jewel on the Lord’s chest, and they express their sympathy by saying that they also want to see these marks. But the queens desire even more to see the kuṅkuma marks on the Lord’s chest, which He “took” from their breasts when they last embraced Him.

SB 10.90.18

tvaṁ yakṣmaṇā balavatāsi gṛhīta indo
 kṣīṇas tamo na nija-dīdhitibhiḥ kṣiṇoṣi
kaccin mukunda-gaditāni yathā vayaṁ tvaṁ
 vismṛtya bhoḥ sthagita-gīr upalakṣyase naḥ
tvam — you; yakṣmaṇā — by consumption; bala-vatā — powerful; asi — are; gṛhītaḥ — seized; indo — O moon; kṣīṇaḥ — emaciated; tamaḥ — darkness; na — not; nija — your; dīdhitibhiḥ — with the rays; kṣiṇoṣi — you destroy; kaccit — whether; mukunda-gaditāni — the statements made by Mukunda; yathā — like; vayam — us; tvam — you; vismṛtya — forgetting; bhoḥ — dear one; sthagita — stunned; gīḥ — whose speech; upalakṣyase — you appear; naḥ — to us.
My dear moon, having contracted a severe case of tuberculosis, you have become so emaciated that you fail to dispel the darkness with your rays. Or is it that you appear dumbstruck because, like us, you cannot remember the encouraging promises Mukunda once made to you?

SB 10.90.19

kiṁ nv ācaritam asmābhir
 malayānila te ’priyam
 hṛdīrayasi naḥ smaram
kim — what; nu — indeed; ācaritam — action done; asmābhiḥ — by us; malaya — of the Malaya mountain range; anila — O wind; te — to you; apriyam — displeasing; govinda — of Kṛṣṇa; apāṅga — by the sidelong glances; nirbhinne — which has been shattered; hṛdi — in the hearts; īrayasi — you are inspiring; naḥ — our; smaram — lust.
O Malayan breeze, what have we done to displease you, so that you stir up lust in our hearts, which have already been shattered by Govinda’s sidelong glances?

SB 10.90.20

megha śrīmaṁs tvam asi dayito yādavendrasya nūnaṁ
 śrīvatsāṅkaṁ vayam iva bhavān dhyāyati prema-baddhaḥ
aty-utkaṇṭhaḥ śavala-hṛdayo ’smad-vidho bāṣpa-dhārāḥ
 smṛtvā smṛtvā visṛjasi muhur duḥkha-das tat-prasaṅgaḥ
megha — O cloud; śrī-man — O honored one; tvam — you; asi — are; dayitaḥ — dear friend; yādava-indrasya — of the chief of the Yādavas; nūnam — certainly; śrīvatsa-aṅkam — upon the one who bears (on His chest) the special mark known as Śrīvatsa; vayam — we; iva — just as; bhavān — your good self; dhyāyati — meditate; prema — by pure love; baddhaḥ — bound; ati — extremely; utkaṇṭhaḥ — eager; śavala — distraught; hṛdayaḥ — whose heart; asmat — as our (hearts); vidhaḥ — in the same manner; bāṣpa — of tears; dhārāḥ — torrents; smṛtvā smṛtvā — repeatedly remembering; visṛjasi — you release; muhuḥ — again and again; duḥkha — misery; daḥ — giving; tat — with Him; prasaṅgaḥ — association.
O revered cloud, you are indeed very dear to the chief of the Yādavas, who bears the mark of Śrīvatsa. Like us, you are bound to Him by love and are meditating upon Him. Your heart is distraught with great eagerness, as our hearts are, and as you remember Him again and again you shed a torrent of tears. Association with Kṛṣṇa brings such misery!

The ācāryas explain this verse as follows: The cloud acts as the friend of Lord Kṛṣṇa by shielding Him from the scorching rays of the sun, and certainly such an earnest well-wisher of the Lord must constantly meditate on Him with concern for His welfare. Although the cloud shares the Lord’s blue complexion, it is Lord Kṛṣṇa’s distinctive features, such as His Śrīvatsa mark, that especially attract him to this meditation. But what is the result? Simply unhappiness: the cloud is depressed and thus constantly sheds tears on the pretext of raining. “So,” the queens advise him, “it would be better for you not to take much interest in Kṛṣṇa.”

SB 10.90.21

priya-rāva-padāni bhāṣase
 mṛta-sañjīvikayānayā girā
karavāṇi kim adya te priyaṁ
 vada me valgita-kaṇṭha kokila
priya — dear; rāva — of him whose sounds; padāni — the vibrations; bhāṣase — you are uttering; mṛta — the dead; sañjīvikayā — which brings back to life; anayā — in this; girā — voice; karavāṇi — I should do; kim — what; adya — today; te — for you; priyam — pleasing; vada — please tell; me — me; valgita — sweetened (by these sounds); kaṇṭha — O you whose throat; kokila — O cuckoo.
O sweet-throated cuckoo, in a voice that could revive the dead you are vibrating the same sounds we once heard from our beloved, the most pleasing of speakers. Please tell me what I can do today to please you.

As Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī explains, though the song of a cuckoo is very pleasant, Lord Kṛṣṇa’s wives perceive it as painful because it reminds them of their beloved Kṛṣṇa and exacerbates their pain of separation.

SB 10.90.22

na calasi na vadasy udāra-buddhe
 kṣiti-dhara cintayase mahāntam artham
api bata vasudeva-nandanāṅghriṁ
 vayam iva kāmayase stanair vidhartum
na calasi — you do not move; na vadasi — you do not speak; udāra — magnanimous; buddhe — whose intelligence; kṣiti-dhara — O mountain; cintayase — you are thinking; mahāntam — great; artham — about a matter; api bata — perhaps; vasudeva-nandana — of the darling son of Vasudeva; aṅghrim — the feet; vayam — we; iva — just as; kāmayase — you desire; stanaiḥ — on your breasts (peaks); vidhartum — to hold.
O magnanimous mountain, you neither move nor speak. You must be pondering some matter of great importance. Or do you, like us, desire to hold on your breasts the feet of Vasudeva’s darling son?

Here the word stanaiḥ, “on your breasts,” refers to the mountain’s peaks.

SB 10.90.23

śuṣyad-dhradāḥ karaśitā bata sindhu-patnyaḥ
 sampraty apāsta-kamala-śriya iṣṭa-bhartuḥ
yadvad vayaṁ madhu-pateḥ praṇayāvalokam
 aprāpya muṣṭa-hṛdayāḥ puru-karśitāḥ sma
śuṣyat — drying up; hradāḥ — whose lakes; karaśitāḥ — shriveled up; bata — alas; sindhu — of the ocean; patnyaḥ — O wives; samprati — now; apāsta — lost; kamala — of lotuses; śrīyaḥ — whose opulence; iṣṭa — beloved; bhartuḥ — of the husband; yadvat — just as; vayam — we; madhu-pateḥ — of Kṛṣṇa, the Lord of Madhu; praṇaya — loving; avalokam — the glance; aprāpya — not obtaining; muṣṭa — cheated; hṛdayāḥ — whose hearts; puru — thoroughly; karśitāḥ — emaciated; sma — we have become.
O rivers, wives of the ocean, your pools have now dried up. Alas, you have shriveled to nothing, and your wealth of lotuses has vanished. Are you, then, like us, who are withering away because of not receiving the affectionate glance of our dear husband, the Lord of Madhu, who has cheated our hearts?

During the summer the rivers do not receive downpours of water provided by their husband, the ocean, via the clouds. But the real reason for the rivers’ emaciation, as the queens see it, is that they have failed to obtain the loving glance of Lord Kṛṣṇa, the reservoir of all happiness.

SB 10.90.24

haṁsa svāgatam āsyatāṁ piba payo brūhy aṅga śaureḥ kathāṁ
 dūtaṁ tvāṁ nu vidāma kaccid ajitaḥ svasty āsta uktaṁ purā
kiṁ vā naś cala-sauhṛdaḥ smarati taṁ kasmād bhajāmo vayaṁ
 kṣaudrālāpaya kāma-daṁ śriyam ṛte saivaika-niṣṭhā striyām
haṁsa — O swan; su-āgatam — welcome; āsyatām — please come and sit down; piba — please drink; payaḥ — milk; brūhi — tell us; aṅga — dear one; śaureḥ — of Śauri; kathām — news; dūtam — messenger; tvām — you; nu — indeed; vidāma — we recognize; kaccit — whether; ajitaḥ — the unconquerable one; svasti — well; āste — is; uktam — spoken; purā — long ago; kim — whether; — or; naḥ — to us; cala — fickle; sauhṛdaḥ — whose friendship; smarati — He remembers; tam — Him; kasmāt — for what reason; bhajāmaḥ — should worship; vayam — we; kṣaudra — O servant of Him who is petty; ālāpaya — tell Him to come; kāma — desire; dam — who bestows; śriyam — the goddess of fortune; ṛte — without; — she; eva — alone; eka-niṣṭhā — exclusively devoted; striyām — among women.
Welcome, swan. Please sit here and drink some milk. Give us some news of the descendant of Śūra, dear one. We know you are His messenger. Is that invincible Lord doing well, and does that unreliable friend of ours still remember the words He spoke to us long ago? Why should we go and worship Him? O servant of a petty master, go tell Him who fulfills our desires to come here without the goddess of fortune. Is she the only woman exclusively devoted to Him?

Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī relates the following conversation between the queens and the swan:

The queens ask, “Is the unconquerable Lord doing well?”

The swan replies, “How can Lord Kṛṣṇa be doing well without you, His beloved consorts?”

“But does He even remember what He once told one of us, Śrīmatī Rukmiṇī? Does He recall that He said, ‘In all My palaces I see no other wife as dear as you’?”

“He does indeed remember this, and that is just why He sent me here. You should all go to Him and engage in His devotional service.”

“Why should we go worship Him if He refuses to come here to be with us?”

“But my dear oceans of compassion, He is suffering so much from your absence! How can He be saved from this distress?”

“Just listen, O servant of a petty master: tell Him to come here, as He should. If He is suffering from lusty desires, He has only Himself to blame, since He Himself is the creator of Cupid’s power. We self-respecting ladies are not going to yield to His demand that we go seek Him out.”

“So be it; then I will take my leave.”

“No, one minute, dear swan. Ask Him to come to us here, but without the goddess of fortune, who always cheats us by keeping Him all to herself.”

“Don’t you know that Goddess Lakṣmī is devoted exclusively to the Lord? How could He give her up like that?”

“And is she the only woman in the world who is completely sold out to Him? What about us?”

SB 10.90.25

śrī-śuka uvāca
itīdṛśena bhāvena
 kṛṣṇe yogeśvareśvare
kriyamāṇena mādhavyo
 lebhire paramāṁ gatim
śrī-śukaḥ uvāca — Śukadeva Gosvāmī said; iti — speaking thus; īdṛśena — with such; bhāvena — ecstatic love; kṛṣṇe — for Kṛṣṇa; yoga-īśvara — of masters of yoga; īśvare — the master; kriyamāṇena — behaving; mādhavyaḥ — the wives of Lord Mādhava; lebhire — they attained; paramām — ultimate; gatim — the goal.
Śukadeva Gosvāmī said: By thus speaking and acting with such ecstatic love for Lord Kṛṣṇa, the master of all masters of mystic yoga, His loving wives attained the ultimate goal of life.

According to Ācārya Śrī Jīva Gosvāmī, here Śukadeva Gosvāmī uses the present tense of the word kriyamāṇena to indicate that the Lord’s queens attained His eternal abode immediately, without delay. By this insight the ācārya helps refute the false notion that after Lord Kṛṣṇa’s departure from this world, some primitive cowherds kidnapped His queens while they were under the protection of Arjuna. In fact, as the self-realized Vaiṣṇava commentators elsewhere explain, Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself appeared in the guise of the thieves who abducted the queens. For further information on this subject, see Śrīla Prabhupāda’s purport to Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam 1.15.20.

Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī remarks that the supreme goal attained by these exalted women was not the liberation of the impersonal yogīs but the perfect state of prema-bhakti, pure loving devotion. Indeed, since they were already imbued with divine love of God from the very beginning, they possessed transcendental bodies of eternity, knowledge and bliss, in which they were fully able to relish the pleasure of reciprocating with the Supreme Lord in his most intimate, sweet pastimes. Specifically, in the opinion of Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī, their love of God matured into the ecstasy of madness in pure love (bhāvonmada), just as the gopīs’ love did when Kṛṣṇa disappeared from their midst during the rāsa dance. At that time the gopīs experienced the full development of ecstatic madness, which they expressed in their inquiries from the various creatures of the forest and in such words as kṛṣṇo ’haṁ paśyata gatim: “I am Kṛṣṇa! Just see how gracefully I move!” (Bhāg. 10.30.19) Similarly, the vilāsa, or flourishing transformation, of the ecstatic love of Lord Dvārakādhīśa’s principal queens has produced the prema-vaicitrya symptoms they have exhibited here.

SB 10.90.26

śruta-mātro ’pi yaḥ strīṇāṁ
 prasahyākarṣate manaḥ
uru-gāyoru-gīto vā
 paśyantīnāṁ ca kiṁ punaḥ
śruta — heard about; mātraḥ — merely; api — even; yaḥ — who (Lord Kṛṣṇa); strīṇām — of women; prasahya — by force; ākarṣate — attracts; manaḥ — the minds; uru — numerous; gāya — by songs; uru — in numerous ways; gītaḥ — sung about; — on the other hand; paśyantīnām — of those women who see him; ca — and; kim — what; punaḥ — more.
The Lord, whom countless songs glorify in countless ways, forcibly attracts the minds of all women who simply hear about Him. What to speak, then, of those women who see Him directly?

SB 10.90.27

yāḥ samparyacaran premṇā
jagad-guruṁ bhartṛ-buddhyā
 tāsāṁ kim varṇyate tapaḥ
yāḥ — who; samparyacaran — perfectly served; premṇā — with pure love; pāda — His feet; saṁvāhana — by massaging; ādibhiḥ — and so forth; jagat — of the universe; gurum — the spiritual master; bhartṛ — as their husband; buddhyā — with the attitude; tāsām — of them; kim — how; varṇyate — can be described; tapaḥ — the austere penances.
And how could one possibly describe the great austerities that had been performed by the women who perfectly served Him, the spiritual master of the universe, in pure ecstatic love? Thinking of Him as their husband, they rendered such intimate services as massaging His feet.

SB 10.90.28

evaṁ vedoditaṁ dharmam
 anutiṣṭhan satāṁ gatiḥ
gṛhaṁ dharmārtha-kāmānāṁ
 muhuś cādarśayat padam
evam — in this manner; veda — by the Vedas; uditam — spoken; dharmam — the principles of religion; anutiṣṭhan — executing; satām — of saintly devotees; gatiḥ — the goal; gṛham — one’s home; dharma — of religiosity; artha — economic development; kāmānām — and sense gratification; muhuḥ — repeatedly; ca — and; ādarśayat — He demonstrated; padam — as the place.
Thus observing the principles of duty enunciated in the Vedas, Lord Kṛṣṇa, the goal of the saintly devotees, repeatedly demonstrated how one can achieve at home the objectives of religiosity, economic development and regulated sense gratification.

SB 10.90.29

āsthitasya paraṁ dharmaṁ
 kṛṣṇasya gṛha-medhinām
āsan ṣoḍaśa-sāhasraṁ
 mahiṣyaś ca śatādhikam
āsthitasya — who was situated in; param — the highest; dharmam — religious principles; kṛṣṇasya — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; gṛha-medhinām — of those in the household order of life; āsan — there were; ṣoḍaśa — sixteen; sāhasram — thousand; mahiṣyaḥ — queens; ca — and; śata — one hundred; adhikam — plus.
While fulfilling the highest standards of religious householder life, Lord Kṛṣṇa maintained more than 16,100 wives.

SB 10.90.30

tāsāṁ strī-ratna-bhūtānām
 aṣṭau yāḥ prāg udāhṛtāḥ
rukmiṇī-pramukhā rājaṁs
 tat-putrāś cānupūrvaśaḥ
tāsām — among them; strī — of women; ratna — gems; bhūtānām — who were; aṣṭau — eight; yāḥ — who; prāk — previously; udāhṛtāḥ — described; rukmiṇī-pramukhāḥ — headed by Rukmiṇī; rājan — O King (Parīkṣit); tat — their; putrāḥ — sons; ca — also; anupūrvaśaḥ — in consecutive order.
Among these jewellike women were eight principal queens, headed by Rukmiṇī. I have already described them one after another, O King, along with their sons.

SB 10.90.31

ekaikasyāṁ daśa daśa
 kṛṣṇo ’jījanad ātmajān
yāvatya ātmano bhāryā
 amogha-gatir īśvaraḥ
eka-ekasyām — in each one of them; daśa daśa — ten each; kṛṣṇaḥ — Kṛṣṇa; ajījanat — begot; ātma-jān — sons; yāvatyaḥ — as many as; ātmanaḥ — His; bhāryāḥ — wives; amogha — never frustrated; gatiḥ — whose effort; īśvaraḥ — the Supreme Lord.
The Supreme Lord Kṛṣṇa, whose endeavor never fails, begot ten sons in each of His many wives.

The total number of Lord Kṛṣṇa’s sons was thus 161,080, and He also had a daughter by each wife.

SB 10.90.32

teṣām uddāma-vīryāṇām
 aṣṭā-daśa mahā-rathāḥ
āsann udāra-yaśasas
 teṣāṁ nāmāni me śṛṇu
teṣām — of these (sons); uddāma — unlimited; vīryāṇām — whose prowess; aṣṭā-daśa — eighteen; mahā-rathāḥ — mahā-rathas, the highest class of chariot warriors; āsan — were; udāra — widespread; yaśasaḥ — whose fame; teṣām — their; nāmāni — names; me — from me; śṛṇu — hear.
Among these sons, all possessing unlimited valor, eighteen were mahā-rathas of great renown. Now hear their names from me.

SB 10.90.33-34

pradyumnaś cāniruddhaś ca
 dīptimān bhānur eva ca
sāmbo madhur bṛhadbhānuś
 citrabhānur vṛko ’ruṇaḥ
puṣkaro vedabāhuś ca
 śrutadevaḥ sunandanaḥ
citrabāhur virūpaś ca
 kavir nyagrodha eva ca
pradyumnaḥ — Pradyumna; ca — and; aniruddhaḥ — Aniruddha; ca — and; dīptimān bhānuḥ — Dīptimān and Bhānu; eva ca — also; sāmbaḥ madhuḥ bṛhat-bhānuḥ — Sāmba, Madhu and Bṛhadbhānu; citra-bhānuḥ vṛkaḥ aruṇaḥ — Citrabhānu, Vṛka and Aruṇa; puṣkaraḥ veda-bāhuḥ ca — Puṣkara and Vedabāhu; śrutadevaḥ sunandanaḥ — Śrutadeva and Sunandana; citra-bāhuḥ virūpaḥ ca — Citrabāhu and Virūpa; kaviḥ nyagrodhaḥ — Kavi and Nyagrodha; eva ca — also.
They were Pradyumna, Aniruddha, Dīptimān, Bhānu, Sāmba, Madhu, Bṛhadbhānu, Citrabhānu, Vṛka, Aruṇa, Puṣkara, Vedabāhu, Śrutadeva, Sunandana, Citrabāhu, Virūpa, Kavi and Nyagrodha.

In the opinion of Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī, the Aniruddha mentioned here is Lord Kṛṣṇa’s son, not His well-known grandson through Pradyumna.

SB 10.90.35

eteṣām api rājendra
 tanu-jānāṁ madhu-dviṣaḥ
pradyumna āsīt prathamaḥ
 pitṛ-vad rukmiṇī-sutaḥ
eteṣām — of these; api — and; rāja-indra — O most eminent of kings; tanu-jānām — sons; madhu-dviṣaḥ — of Kṛṣṇa, enemy of the demon Madhu; pradyumnaḥ — Pradyumna; āsīt — was; prathamaḥ — first; pitṛvat — just like His father; rukmiṇī-sutaḥ — son of Rukmiṇī.
O best of kings, of these sons begotten by Lord Kṛṣṇa, the enemy of Madhu, the most prominent was Rukmiṇī’s son Pradyumna. He was just like His father.

SB 10.90.36

sa rukmiṇo duhitaram
 upayeme mahā-rathaḥ
tasyāṁ tato ’niruddho ’bhūt
saḥ — He (Pradyumna); rukmiṇaḥ — of Rukmī (the oldest brother of Rukmiṇī); duhitaram — the daughter, Rukmavatī; upayeme — married; mahā-rathaḥ — the great chariot warrior; tasyām — in her; tataḥ — then; aniruddhaḥ — Aniruddha; abhūt — was born; nāga — of elephants; ayuta — ten thousand; bala — with the strength; anvitaḥ — endowed.
The great warrior Pradyumna married Rukmī’s daughter [Rukmavatī], who gave birth to Aniruddha. He was as strong as ten thousand elephants.

SB 10.90.37

sa cāpi rukmiṇaḥ pautrīṁ
 dauhitro jagṛhe tataḥ
vajras tasyābhavad yas tu
 mauṣalād avaśeṣitaḥ
saḥ — he (Aniruddha); ca — and; api — furthermore; rukmiṇaḥ — of Rukmī; pautrīm — the granddaughter, Rocanā; dauhitraḥ — (Rukmī’s) daughter’s son; jagṛhe — took; tataḥ — then; vajraḥ — Vajra; tasya — as his son; abhavat — took birth; yaḥ — who; tu — but; mauṣalāt — after the pastime in which the Yadus slaughtered each other with iron clubs; avaśeṣitaḥ — remained.
Rukmī’s daughter’s son [Aniruddha] married Rukmī’s son’s daughter [Rocana]. From her was born Vajra, who would remain among the few survivors of the Yadus’ battle with clubs.

SB 10.90.38

pratibāhur abhūt tasmāt
 subāhus tasya cātmajaḥ
subāhoḥ śāntaseno ’bhūc
 chatasenas tu tat-sutaḥ
prati-bāhuḥ — Pratibāhu; abhūt — came; tasmāt — from him (Vajra); subāhuḥ — Subāhu; tasya — his; ca — and; ātma-jaḥ — son; su-bāhoḥ — from Subāhu; śānta-senaḥ — Śāntasena; abhūt — came; śata-senaḥ — Śatasena; tu — and; tat — his (Śāntasena’s); sutaḥ — son.
From Vajra came Pratibāhu, whose son was Subāhu. Subāhu’s son was Śāntasena, from whom Śatasena was born.

SB 10.90.39

na hy etasmin kule jātā
 adhanā abahu-prajāḥ
alpāyuṣo ’lpa-vīryāś ca
 abrahmaṇyāś ca jajñire
na — not; hi — indeed; etasmin — in this; kule — family; jātāḥ — appearing; adhanaḥ — poor; a-bahu — not having many; prajāḥ — children; alpa-āyuṣaḥ — short-lived; alpa — small; vīryāḥ — whose prowess; ca — and; abrahmaṇyāḥ — not devoted to the brahminical class; ca — and; jajñire — were born.
No one born in this family was poor in wealth or progeny, short-lived, weak or neglectful of brahminical culture.

SB 10.90.40

 puṁsāṁ vikhyāta-karmaṇām
saṅkhyā na śakyate kartum
 api varṣāyutair nṛpa
yadu-vaṁśa — in the Yadu dynasty; prasūtānām — of those who were born; puṁsām — men; vikhyāta — famous; karmaṇām — whose deeds; saṅkhyā — the counting; na śakyate — cannot; kartum — be done; api — even; varṣa — in years; ayutaiḥ — tens of thousands; nṛpa — O King (Parīkṣit).
The Yadu dynasty produced innumerable great men of famous deeds. Even in tens of thousands of years, O King, one could never count them all.

SB 10.90.41

tisraḥ koṭyaḥ sahasrāṇām
 aṣṭāśīti-śatāni ca
āsan yadu-kulācāryāḥ
 kumārāṇām iti śrutam
tisraḥ — three; koṭyaḥ — (times) ten million; sahasrāṇām — thousand; aṣṭā-aśīti — eighty-eight; śatāni — hundreds; ca — and; āsan — were; yadu-kula — of the Yadu family; ācāryāḥ — teachers; kumārāṇām — for the children; iti — thus; śrutam — has been heard.
I have heard from authoritative sources that the Yadu family employed 38,800,000 teachers just to educate their children.

SB 10.90.42

saṅkhyānaṁ yādavānāṁ kaḥ
 kariṣyati mahātmanām
yatrāyutānām ayuta-
 lakṣeṇāste sa āhukaḥ
saṅkhyānam — the counting; yādavānām — of the Yādavas; kaḥ — who; kariṣyati — can do; mahā-ātmanām — of the great personalities; yatra — among whom; ayutānām — of tens of thousands; ayuta — (times) ten thousand; lakṣeṇa — with (three) hundred thousand (persons); āste — was present; saḥ — he; āhukaḥ — Ugrasena.
Who can count all the great Yādavas, when among them King Ugrasena alone was accompanied by an entourage of thirty trillion attendants?

Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī explains why specifically thirty trillion, rather than an indefinite number of tens of trillions, is stated here to be the number of King Ugrasena’s attendants. He does so by citing the interpretational rule of kapiñjalādhikaraṇa, the logic of “referring to pigeons”: Somewhere in the Vedas is found the injunction that “one should sacrifice some pigeons.” This plural number should be taken to mean not an indiscriminate number of pigeons, but precisely three of them, since the Vedas never leave any matter vague. The rules of Mīmāṁsā interpretation take three as the default number when no specific number is given.

SB 10.90.43

 daiteyā ye su-dāruṇāḥ
te cotpannā manuṣyeṣu
 prajā dṛptā babādhire
deva-asura — among the demigods and demons; āhava — in wars; hatāḥ — killed; daiteyāḥ — demons; ye — who; su — very; dāruṇāḥ — ferocious; te — they; ca — and; utpannāḥ — arose; manuṣyeṣu — among human beings; prajāḥ — the populace; dṛptāḥ — arrogant; babādhire — they troubled.
The savage descendants of Diti who had been killed in past ages in battles between the demigods and demons took birth among human beings and arrogantly harassed the general populace.

SB 10.90.44

tan-nigrahāya hariṇā
 proktā devā yadoḥ kule
avatīrṇāḥ kula-śataṁ
 teṣām ekādhikaṁ nṛpa
tat — of them; nigrahāya — for the subduing; hariṇā — by Lord Kṛṣṇa; proktāḥ — told; devāḥ — the demigods; yadoḥ — of Yadu; kule — in the family; avatīrṇāḥ — descended; kula — of clans; śatam — one hundred; teṣām — their; eka-adhikam — plus one; nṛpa — O King (Parīkṣit).
To subdue these demons, Lord Hari told the demigods to descend into the dynasty of Yadu. They comprised 101 clans, O King.

SB 10.90.45

teṣāṁ pramāṇaṁ bhagavān
 prabhutvenābhavad dhariḥ
ye cānuvartinas tasya
 vavṛdhuḥ sarva-yādavāḥ
teṣām — for them; pramāṇam — authority; bhagavān — Lord Kṛṣṇa; prabhutvena — on account of His being the Supreme Personality of Godhead; abhavat — was; hariḥ — Lord Hari; ye — they who; ca — and; anuvartinaḥ — personal associates; tasya — His; vavṛdhuḥ — prospered; sarva — all; yādavāḥ — the Yādavas.
Because Lord Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Yādavas accepted Him as their ultimate authority. And among them, all those who were His intimate associates especially flourished.

SB 10.90.46

na viduḥ santam ātmānaṁ
 vṛṣṇayaḥ kṛṣṇa-cetasaḥ
śayyā — of sleeping; āsana — sitting; aṭana — walking; ālāpa — conversing; krīḍa — playing; snāna — bathing; ādi — and so on; karmasu — in the activities; na viduḥ — they were not aware of; santam — present; ātmānam — their own selves; vṛṣṇayaḥ — the Vṛṣṇis; kṛṣṇa — (absorbed) in Kṛṣṇa; cetasaḥ — whose minds.
The Vṛṣṇis were so absorbed in Kṛṣṇa consciousness that they forgot their own bodies while sleeping, sitting, walking, conversing, playing, bathing and so on.

SB 10.90.47

tīrthaṁ cakre nṛponaṁ yad ajani yaduṣu svaḥ-sarit pāda-śaucaṁ
 vidviṭ-snigdhāḥ svarūpaṁ yayur ajita-para śrīr yad-arthe ’nya-yatnaḥ
yan-nāmāmaṅgala-ghnaṁ śrutam atha gaditaṁ yat-kṛto gotra-dharmaḥ
 kṛṣṇasyaitan na citraṁ kṣiti-bhara-haraṇaṁ kāla-cakrāyudhasya
tīrtham — sacred place of pilgrimage; cakre — made; nṛpa — O King (Parīkṣit); ūnam — lesser; yat — which (glories of Lord Kṛṣṇa); ajani — He took birth; yaduṣu — among the Yadus; svaḥ — of heaven; sarit — the river; pāda — whose feet; śaucam — (the water) which washes; vidviṭ — enemies; snigdhāḥ — and loved ones; svarūpam — whose personal form; yayuḥ — attained; ajita — who is undefeated; parā — and supremely perfect; śrīḥ — the goddess of fortune; yat — whose; arthe — for the sake; anya — of others; yatnaḥ — endeavor; yat — whose; nāma — name; amaṅgala — inauspiciousness; ghnam — which destroys; śrutam — heard; atha — or else; gaditam — chanted; yat — by whom; kṛtaḥ — created; gotra — among the lines of descent (of various sages); dharmaḥ — the religious principles; kṛṣṇasya — for Lord Kṛṣṇa; etat — this; na — not; citram — wonderful; kṣiti — the earth’s; bhara — of the burden; haraṇam — the removal; kāla — of time; cakra — the wheel; āyudhasya — whose weapon.
The heavenly Ganges is a holy place of pilgrimage because her waters wash Lord Kṛṣṇa’s feet. But when the Lord descended among the Yadus, His glories eclipsed the Ganges as a holy place. Both those who hated Kṛṣṇa and those who loved Him attained eternal forms like His in the spiritual world. The unattainable and supremely self-satisfied goddess of fortune, for the sake of whose favor everyone else struggles, belongs to Him alone. His name destroys all inauspiciousness when heard or chanted. He alone has set forth the principles of the various disciplic successions of sages. What wonder is it that He, whose personal weapon is the wheel of time, relieved the burden of the earth?

From beginning to end, the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam has been exclusively dedicated to reciting the pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa in Vṛndāvana, Mathurā and Dvārakā. As Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī points out, this verse sums up the Tenth Canto by mentioning five special glories of Śrī Kṛṣṇa that even His expansions, plenary portions and incarnations do not display.

First, Lord Kṛṣṇa’s reputation eclipsed that of the holy Ganges when He descended into the Yadu dynasty. Previous to this, Mother Ganges was the most sacred of all tīrthas, being the water that had bathed Lord Vāmanadeva’s lotus feet. Another river, the Yamunā, became even greater than the Ganges by contacting the dust from Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s feet in the districts of Vraja and Mathurā:

gaṅgā-śata-guṇā prāyo
 māthure mama maṇḍale
yamunā viśrutā devi
 nātra kāryā vicāraṇā

“The renowned Yamunā in My domain of Mathurā is hundreds of times greater than the Ganges. About this there can be no dispute, O goddess.” (Varāha Purāṇa)

Second, Lord Kṛṣṇa gave liberation not only to His surrendered devotees but also to those who considered themselves His enemies. Devotees like the cowherd girls of Vraja and others attained His personal association by entering into His eternal pleasure pastimes in the spiritual world, while inimical demons killed by Him attained the sāyujya-mukti of merging into His divine form. When He was present on this earth, Lord Kṛṣṇa’s compassion extended to His family, friends and servants, and also to His enemies and their families, friends and servants. Great authorities like Lord Brahmā have mentioned this fact: sad-veṣād iva pūtanāpi sa-kulā tvām eva devāpitā. “My Lord, You have already given Yourself to Pūtanā and her family members simply because she dressed herself as a devotee.” (Bhāg. 10.14.35)

Third, Goddess Lakṣmī, Lord Nārāyaṇa’s constant companion, whom great demigods serve menially to win her slight favor, was unable to win the privilege of joining the intimate company of Lord Kṛṣṇa’s devotees in Vraja. Despite her eagerness to participate in the rāsa dance and other pastimes enacted by Śrī Kṛṣṇa, and despite the severe austerities she underwent to achieve that end, she could not transcend her natural mood of reverence. The sweetness and intimacy Lord Kṛṣṇa manifested in Vṛndāvana constitute a unique kind of opulence found nowhere else, even in Vaikuṇṭha. As Śrī Uddhava says:

yan martya-līlaupayikaṁ sva-yoga-
 māyā-balaṁ darśayatā gṛhītam
vismāpanaṁ svasya ca saubhagarddheḥ
 paraṁ padaṁ bhūṣaṇa-bhūṣaṇāṅgam

“To exhibit the strength of His spiritual potency, Lord Kṛṣṇa manifested a form just suitable for His humanlike pastimes in the material world. This form was wonderful even for Him and was the supreme abode of the wealth of good fortune. Its limbs were so beautiful that they increased the beauty of the ornaments worn on different parts of His body.” (Bhāg. 3.2.12)

Fourth, the name Kṛṣṇa is superior to the name Nārāyaṇa and to those of all of Lord Kṛṣṇa’s other expansions. These two syllables — kṛṣ and ṇa — combine together to destroy all inauspiciousness and illusion. When recited, the name Kṛṣṇa becomes śruta-matha; that is to say, the recitation of Kṛṣṇa’s name totally crushes (mathnāti) the excellence of all other spiritual practices described in the revealed scriptures (śruta). In the words of the Brahmāṇda Purāṇa:

sahasra-nāmnāṁ puṇyānāṁ
 trir āvṛttyā tu yat phalam
ekāvṛttyā tu kṛṣṇasya
 nāmaikaṁ tat prayacchati

“By uttering the single name of Kṛṣṇa just once, one attains the same benefit as that gained by reciting Lord Viṣṇu’s thousand names three times.”

Fifth, Lord Kṛṣṇa solidly reinstated dharma, the bull of religion, on his four legs of compassion, austerity, cleanliness and truth. Thus dharma could once again become go-tra, the protector of the earth. Śrī Kṛṣṇa also established the religious function of Govardhana-pūjā to honor His favorite hill, the cows and the brāhmaṇas. He also became the hill (gotra) Himself, assuming its form to accept the cowherds’ offerings. Moreover, He cultivated the dharma, or loving nature, of Vraja’s divine cowherds (gotras), whose love for Him has never been equaled.

These are just a few of the wonderful features of Lord Kṛṣṇa’s unique personality.

SB 10.90.48

jayati jana-nivāso devakī-janma-vādo
 yadu-vara-pariṣat svair dorbhir asyann adharmam
sthira-cara-vṛjina-ghnaḥ su-smita-śrī-mukhena
 vraja-pura-vanitānāṁ vardhayan kāma-devam
jayati — eternally lives gloriously; jana-nivāsaḥ — He who lives among human beings like the members of the Yadu dynasty and is the ultimate resort of all living entities; devakī-janma-vādaḥ — known as the son of Devakī (No one can actually become the father or mother of the Supreme Personality of GodheadTherefore devakī-janma-vada means that He is known as the son of DevakīSimilarly, He is also known as the son of mother Yaśodā, Vasudeva and Nanda Mahārāja); yadu-vara-pariṣat — served by the members of the Yadu dynasty or the cowherd men of Vṛndāvana (all of whom are constant associates of the Supreme Lord and are the Lord’s eternal servants); svaiḥ dorbhiḥ — by His own arms, or by His devotees like Arjuna who are just like His own arms; asyan — killing; adharmam — demons or the impious; sthira-cara-vṛjina-ghnaḥ — the destroyer of all the ill fortune of all living entities, moving and not moving; su-smita — always smiling; śrī-mukhena — by His beautiful face; vraja-pura-vanitānām — of the damsels of Vṛndāvana; vardhayan — increasing; kāma-devam — the lusty desires.
Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa is He who is known as jana-nivāsa, the ultimate resort of all living entities, and who is also known as Devakīnandana or Yaśodā-nandana, the son of Devakī and Yaśodā. He is the guide of the Yadu dynasty, and with His mighty arms He kills everything inauspicious, as well as every man who is impious. By His presence He destroys all things inauspicious for all living entities, moving and inert. His blissful smiling face always increases the lusty desires of the gopīs of Vṛndāvana. May He be all glorious and happy!

The translation and word meanings for this verse are taken from Śrīla Prabhupāda’s English rendering of Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta (Madhya 13.79). According to Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī, Śrīla Śukadeva Gosvāmī has composed this beautiful verse to console those who lament the fact that Lord Kṛṣṇa did not continue to manifest His intimate pastimes down to the present time. Here Śrī Śukadeva reminds his listeners that the Lord is eternally present in this world — in His holy abode, His name and the recitation of His glories. This idea is expressed by the word jayati (“He is victorious”), which is in the present tense rather than the past.

Śrīla Prabhupāda explains this verse as follows in Kṛṣṇa: “Śrīla Śukadeva Gosvāmī thus concludes his description of the superexalted position of Lord Kṛṣṇa by glorifying Him in the following way: ‘O Lord Kṛṣṇa, all glories unto You. You are present in everyone’s heart as Paramātmā. Therefore You are known as Jananivāsa, one who lives in everyone’s heart.’ As confirmed in the Bhagavad-gītā, īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāṁ hṛd-deśe ’rjuna tiṣṭhati: ‘The Supreme Lord in His Paramātmā feature lives in everyone’s heart.’ This does not mean, however, that Kṛṣṇa has no separate existence as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The Māyāvādī philosophers accept the all-pervading feature of Parabrahman, but when Parabrahman, or the Supreme Lord, appears, they think that He appears under the control of material nature. Because Lord Kṛṣṇa appeared as the son of Devakī, the Māyāvādī philosophers accept Kṛṣṇa to be an ordinary living entity who takes birth within this material world. Therefore Śukadeva Gosvāmī warns them: devakī-janma-vādaḥ, which means that although Kṛṣṇa is famous as the son of Devakī, actually He is the Supersoul, or the all-pervading Supreme Personality of Godhead.

“The devotees, however, take this word devakī-janma-vāda in a different way. The devotees understand that actually Kṛṣṇa was the son of mother Yaśodā. Although Kṛṣṇa first of all appeared as the son of Devakī, He immediately transferred Himself to the lap of mother Yaśodā, and His childhood pastimes were blissfully enjoyed by mother Yaśodā and Nanda Mahārāja. This fact was also admitted by Vasudeva himself when he met Nanda Mahārāja and Yaśodā at Kurukṣetra. He admitted that Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma were actually the sons of mother Yaśodā and Nanda Mahārāja. Vasudeva and Devakī were only Their official father and mother. Their actual father and mother were Nanda and Yaśodā. Therefore Śukadeva Gosvāmī describes Lord Kṛṣṇa as devakī-janma-vāda.

“Śukadeva Gosvāmī then glorifies the Lord as one who is honored by the yadu-vara-pariṣat, the assembly house of the Yadu dynasty, and as the killer of different kinds of demons. Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, could have killed all the demons by employing His different material energies, but He wanted to kill them personally in order to give them salvation. There was no need of Kṛṣṇa’s coming to this material world to kill the demons. Simply by His willing, many hundreds and thousands of demons could have been killed without His personal endeavor. But actually He descended for His pure devotees, to play as a child with mother Yaśodā and Nanda Mahārāja and to give pleasure to the inhabitants of Dvārakā. By killing the demons and by giving protection to the devotees, Lord Kṛṣṇa established the real religious principle, which is simply love of God. By following the factual religious principles of love of God, even the living entities known as sthira-cara were also delivered from all material contamination and were transferred to the spiritual kingdom. Sthira means the trees and plants, which cannot move, and cara means the moving animals, especially the cows. When Kṛṣṇa was present, He delivered all the trees, monkeys and other plants and animals who happened to see Him and serve Him both in Vṛndāvana and Dvārakā.

“Lord Kṛṣṇa is especially glorified for giving pleasure to the gopīs and the queens of Dvārakā. Śukadeva Gosvāmī glorifies Lord Kṛṣṇa for His enchanting smile, by which He enchanted not only the gopīs of Vṛndāvana but also the queens at Dvārakā. The exact words used in this connection are vardhayan kāmadevam. In Vṛndāvana, as the boyfriend of many gopīs, and in Dvārakā, as the husband of many queens, Kṛṣṇa increased their lusty desires to enjoy with Him. For God realization or self-realization, one generally has to undergo severe austerities and penances for many, many thousands of years, and then it may be possible to realize God. But the gopīs and the queens of Dvārakā, simply by enhancing their lusty desires to enjoy Kṛṣṇa as their boyfriend or husband, received the highest type of salvation.”

In this way Śrīla Prabhupāda wonderfully illuminates the meaning of this verse by Śukadeva Gosvāmī, which summarizes Lord Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes.

SB 10.90.49

itthaṁ parasya nija-vartma-rirakṣayātta-
 līlā-tanos tad-anurūpa-viḍambanāni
karmāṇi karma-kaṣaṇāni yadūttamasya
 śrūyād amuṣya padayor anuvṛttim icchan
ittham — (described) in this manner; parasya — of the Supreme; nija — His own; vartma — path (of devotional service); rirakṣayā — with the desire of protecting; ātta — who has assumed; līlā — for pastimes; tanoḥ — various personal forms; tat — to each of these; anurūpa — suitable; viḍambanāni — imitating; karmāṇi — activities; karma — the reactions of material work; kaṣaṇāni — which destroy; yadu-uttamasya — of the best of the Yadus; śrūyāt — one should hear; amuṣya — His; padayoḥ — of the feet; anuvṛttim — the privilege of following; icchan — desiring.
To protect the principles of devotional service to Himself, Lord Kṛṣṇa, the best of the Yadus, accepts the pastime forms that have been glorified here in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. One who desires to faithfully serve His lotus feet should hear of the activities He performs in each of these incarnations — activities that suitably imitate those of the forms He assumes. Hearing narrations of these pastimes destroys the reactions to fruitive work.

SB 10.90.50

martyas tayānusavam edhitayā mukunda
tad dhāma dustara-kṛtānta-javāpavargaṁ
 grāmād vanaṁ kṣiti-bhujo ’pi yayur yad-arthāḥ
martyaḥ — a mortal; tayā — by such; anusavam — constantly; edhitayā — increasing; mukunda — about Lord Kṛṣṇa; śrīmat — beautiful; kathā — of the topics; śravaṇa — by hearing; kīrtana — chanting; cintayā — and meditating; eti — goes; tat — His; dhāma — to the abode; dustara — unavoidable; kṛta-anta — of death; java — of the force; apavargam — the place of cessation; grāmāt — from one’s mundane home; vanam — to the forest; kṣiti-bhujaḥ — kings (like Priyavrata); api — even; yayuḥ — went; yat — whom; arthāḥ — for the sake of obtaining.
By regularly hearing, chanting and meditating on the beautiful topics of Lord Mukunda with ever-increasing sincerity, a mortal being will attain the divine kingdom of the Lord, where the inviolable power of death holds no sway. For this purpose, many persons, including great kings, abandoned their mundane homes and took to the forest.

For the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam’s Tenth Canto, this verse is the phala-śruti, the promise of success given to one who hears it. The process of devotional service begins with hearing topics about the Supreme Lord. When one has heard these topics properly, he can then proceed to chant them for others’ benefit and reflect on their significance. This leads to faithful adherence to the principles of devotional service, which culminates in absolute faith in Lord Kṛṣṇa. Such perfect faith gives one the right to enter the Lord’s intimate service and, in due course of time, return to one’s eternal, spiritual life in one of the Lord’s personal domains.

Humbly offering his comments on the Tenth Canto at the lotus feet of his worshipable Lord, Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī prays:

mad-gavīr api gopālaḥ
 svī-kuryāt kṛpayā yadi
tadaivāsāṁ payaḥ pītvā
 hṛṣyeyus tat-priyā janāḥ

“If Lord Gopāla mercifully accepts the cows of my words, then His dear devotees may enjoy the pleasure of drinking their milk — the nectar produced by hearing them.”

Thus end the purports of the humble servants of His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda to the Tenth Canto, Ninetieth Chapter, of the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, entitled “Summary of Lord Kṛṣṇa’s Glories.”

The Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam was completed on December 27, 1988, the anniversary of Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura’s disappearance.