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  1. BID 7: Kierkegaard

    The Danish philosopher S ṭ ren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) is generally regarded as the father of existentialism. His concern with individual existence, choice, and commitment profoundly influenced modern Western theology and philosophy. Here Śrīla ...

  2. BID 8: Schopenhauer

    The German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) took some of his ideas from the Indian Vedic literature but many more from Buddhist writings, and he ended up espousing an atheistic and pessimistic doctrine. Śrīla Prabhupāda shows how his i ...

  3. BID 9: Darwin

    The British scientist Charles Darwin (1809-1882) laid the foundation of modern evolutionary theory with his concept of the development of all forms of life through the slow-working process of natural selection. His work has exerted a major influe ...

  4. BID 10: John Stuart Mill

    The Briton John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) belonged to a school of philosophy called utilitarianism. An economist as well as a philosopher, Mill had a great impact on 19th-century British thought, not only in philosophy and economics but also in the ...

  5. BID 11: Marx

    With his Communist Manifesto —beginning with the ominous “A specter is haunting Europe—the specter of communism” and ending with the clarion call “Workers of the world, unite!”—the German philosopher Karl Marx (1818-1883) launched the communis ...

  6. BID 12: Nietzsche

    Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) was a German philosopher and poet whose work has greatly influenced modern thinkers. Perceiving that traditional Christian values had lost their influence in society, he coined the phrase “God is dead.” His concept ...

  7. BID 13: Freud

    The founder of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) spent most of his life in Vienna investigating the intricacies of the human mind and formulating ideas that have largely guided the treatment of mental illness in the West up to the present ...

  8. BID 14: Sartre

    The Frenchman John-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) was the most prominent exponent of existentialism. His philosophy is explicitly atheistic and pessimistic; he declared that human beings require a rational basis for their lives but are unable to achieve ...

  9. BID 15: Carl Jung

    Carl Jung (1865-1961) was a Swiss student of Freud’s who broke with his teacher and began his own school of psychiatry. He is best known for his work in exploring the unconscious and for championing the importance of philosophy, religion, and mys ...

  10. Civilization and Transcendence

    His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhup ā da Replies to a Questionnaire From Bhavan's Journal June 28, 1976 ...