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GG: Chapter 18

arjun kahilen:
sannyāser tattva kivā icchā se śunite
hṛṣīkeś kaha tāi more bujhāite
keśi nisūdan kaha tyāgera mahimā
śunite ānanda hay nāhi parsīmā

Text 1: Arjuna said: O mighty-armed one, I wish to understand the purpose of renunciation [tyāga] and of the renounced order of life [sannyāsa], O killer of the Keśī demon, master of the senses.

śrī-bhagavān kahilen:
kāmākarma parityāg sannyās se hay
sarva karma phala-tyāg tyāg paricay
vicakṣaṇ kari yata karila nirṇay
sei se sannyāsa ār tyāg nāma hay

Text 2: The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: The giving up of activities that are based on material desire is what great learned men call the renounced order of life [sannyāsa]. And giving up the results of all activities is what the wise call renunciation [tyāga].

manīṣīgaṇ sarva karma tyāg kare
yajña dān tapa-kriyā nahe, kahaye apare

Text 3: Some learned men declare that all kinds of fruitive activities should be given up as faulty, yet other sages maintain that acts of sacrifice, charity and penance should never be abandoned.

tār madhye ye siddhānta kahi tāhā śuna
trividha se tyāg hay bharata-sattama

Text 4: O best of the Bhāratas, now hear My judgment about renunciation. O tiger among men, renunciation is declared in the scriptures to be of three kinds.

svarūpata yajña-dān kabhu tyājya nay
sakala samaye tāhā kārya yogya hay
baddha jīv āche yata tādera kartavya
manīṣī pāvana sei yajña dāna kārya

Text 5: Acts of sacrifice, charity and penance are not to be given up; they must be performed. Indeed, sacrifice, charity and penance purify even the great souls.

se kāryer anuṣṭhān phala-saṇga tyāg
kartavyera anurodhe śudhu tāhe rāg

Text 6: All these activities should be performed without attachment or any expectation of result. They should be performed as a matter of duty, O son of Pṛthā. That is My final opinion.

nirdiṣṭa karmera tyāg nahe se vidhān
mohete se tyāg hay tāmasika jñān

Text 7: Prescribed duties should never be renounced. If one gives up his prescribed duties because of illusion, such renunciation is said to be in the mode of ignorance.

duḥkha hay tār janya karma-tyāga kare
kimbā karma-tyāg kare kāya-kleśa ḍare
rājasika tyāg sei phal nāhi pāy
sei ye kahinu yata śāstrera nirṇay

Text 8: Anyone who gives up prescribed duties as troublesome or out of fear of bodily discomfort is said to have renounced in the mode of passion. Such action never leads to the elevation of renunciation.

kartavya jāniyā yevā sarva karma kare
phala-tyāg karibāre sāttvika nām dhare

Text 9: O Arjuna, when one performs his prescribed duty only because it ought to be done, and renounces all material association and all attachment to the fruit, his renunciation is said to be in the mode of goodness.

karytavera anurodhe akuśala-o kare
āsakti nāhi se kuśal karmera tare
medhāvī ye tyāgī sattva samāviṣṭa hay
chinna tār haye yāy sakala saṁśay

Text 10: The intelligent renouncer situated in the mode of goodness, neither hateful of inauspicious work nor attached to auspicious work, has no doubts about work.

dehadhārī jīva karma-tyāg nāhi kare
karma-phala tyāg kari tyāgī nāma dhare

Text 11: It is indeed impossible for an embodied being to give up all activities. But he who renounces the fruits of action is called one who has truly renounced.

aniṣṭa iṣṭa vā miśra karmaphala hay
kintu sannyāsīra sei kichu bhog nay

Text 12: For one who is not renounced, the threefold fruits of action—desirable, undesirable and mixed—accrue after death. But those who are in the renounced order of life have no such result to suffer or enjoy.

pañca se kāraṇa hay sakala kāryera
mahāvāho śuna sei kahi se tomāre
vedānta siddhānta sei śāstrera nirṇay
bhāla-manda yāhā kichu sei se paryāy

Text 13: O mighty-armed Arjuna, according to the Vedānta there are five causes for the accomplishment of all action. Now learn of these from Me.

adhiṣṭhāna kartā ār karaṇa pṛthak
vividha se ceṣṭā daiva e paṅca-śīrṣak

Text 14: The place of action [the body], the performer, the various senses, the many different kinds of endeavor, and ultimately the Supersoul—these are the five factors of action.

śarīra vacan man karma tat dvārā
nyāyya vā a-nyāyya yata karma sārā
sabāra kāraṇa hay sei pañca vidha
sakala kāryera hay sei se hetava

Text 15: Whatever right or wrong action a man performs by body, mind or speech is caused by these five factors.

mūrkha yārā kartā sāje nija man gaḍā
nā bujhiyā kāraṇa se śudhu kartā chāḍā

Text 16: Therefore one who thinks himself the only doer, not considering the five factors, is certainly not very intelligent and cannot see things as they are.

ataev ye nā haya ahaṅkāre matta
buddhi yār ahaṁ-bhāve nāhi hay lipta
kartavyera anurodhe yadi viśva māre
kāhāke-o māre nā se kimbā karma kare

Text 17: One who is not motivated by false ego, whose intelligence is not entangled, though he kills men in this world, does not kill. Nor is he bound by his actions.

karmera preraṇā hay jñān, jñeya, jñātā
karmera saṁgraha se karaṇ karma-kartā

Text 18: Knowledge, the object of knowledge, and the knower are the three factors that motivate action; the senses, the work and the doer are the three constituents of action.

jñān ār kartā hay trividha guṇ bhede
kahiba se trividha bhed tomāke saṁkṣepe

Text 19: According to the three different modes of material nature, there are three kinds of knowledge, action and performer of action. Now hear of them from Me.

ek jīv ātmā nānā karmaphal bhede
manuṣyādi sarva-dehe se vartamān kṣede
avyaya se jīv hay ek-tattva jñān
bibhinnate ek dekhe sei sāttvik jñān

Text 20: That knowledge by which one undivided spiritual nature is seen in all living entities, though they are divided into innumerable forms, you should understand to be in the mode of goodness.

vibhinna jīvera sei pṛthakatva dekhe
rājasik tār jñān nānābhāve thāke

Text 21: That knowledge by which one sees that in every different body there is a different type of living entity you should understand to be in the mode of passion.

dehake sarvasva bujhi ye jñān udbhav
a-tattvajña alpa-buddhi tāmasika sab

Text 22: And that knowledge by which one is attached to one kind of work as the all in all, without knowledge of the truth, and which is very meager, is said to be in the mode of darkness.

rāg dveṣ saṅga vinā ye niyata karma
se jānibe sab sāttvikera dharma

Text 23: That action which is regulated and which is performed without attachment, without love or hatred, and without desire for fruitive results is said to be in the mode of goodness.

phalera kāmanā karma ahaṅkār saha
kaṣṭasādhya yata rājasa samūha

Text 24: But action performed with great effort by one seeking to gratify his desires, and enacted from a sense of false ego, is called action in the mode of passion.

nā bujhiyā mohavaśe anubandha karma
hiṁsā paratāp ādi tāmasika dharma

Text 25: That action performed in illusion, in disregard of scriptural injunctions, and without concern for future bondage or for violence or distress caused to others is said to be in the mode of ignorance.

mukta-saṇga anahaṇkār dhṛti utsāhapūrṇa
nirvikār siddhāsiddhi sāttvika se dhanya

Text 26: One who performs his duty without association with the modes of material nature, without false ego, with great determination and enthusiasm, and without wavering in success or failure is said to be a worker in the mode of goodness.

karmāsakta phale lobh hiṁsuka aśuci
rājasik kartā sei harṣa-śoke ruci

Text 27: The worker who is attached to work and the fruits of work, desiring to enjoy those fruits, and who is greedy, always envious, impure, and moved by joy and sorrow, is said to be in the mode of passion.

ayukta prākṛta stabdha naiṣkṛti alas
dīrghasūtrī viṣādī vā kartā se tāmas

Text 28: The worker who is always engaged in work against the injunctions of the scripture, who is materialistic, obstinate, cheating and expert in insulting others, and who is lazy, always morose and procrastinating is said to be a worker in the mode of ignorance.

buddhira ye tin bhed dhṛti ār guṇ
dhanañjay aśeṣa vicār tār śuna

Text 29: O winner of wealth, now please listen as I tell you in detail of the different kinds of understanding and determination, according to the three modes of material nature.

pravṛtti nivṛtti kārya akārya vicār
bhayābhay bandha mūrti sattva-buddhi tār

Text 30: O son of Pṛthā, that understanding by which one knows what ought to be done and what ought not to be done, what is to be feared and what is not to be feared, what is binding and what is liberating, is in the mode of goodness.

dharmādharma kāryākārya ayathāvat jāne
rājasik sei buddhi śāstrera pramāṇe

Text 31: O son of Pṛthā, that understanding which cannot distinguish between religion and irreligion, between action that should be done and action that should not be done, is in the mode of passion.

dharmake adharma māne adharmake dharma
viparīta se tāmasa buddhi ār karma

Text 32: That understanding which considers irreligion to be religion and religion to be irreligion, under the spell of illusion and darkness, and strives always in the wrong direction, O Pārtha, is in the mode of ignorance.

ye dhṛtir dvārā dhare prāṇendriya kriyā
avyabhicāriṇī bhakti sāttvikī se dhiyā

Text 33: O son of Pṛthā, that determination which is unbreakable, which is sustained with steadfastness by yoga practice, and which thus controls the activities of the mind, life and senses is determination in the mode of goodness.

ye dhṛtir dvāra dhare dharma, artha, kām
phalākāṅkṣī rājasik hay tār nām

Text 34: But that determination by which one holds fast to fruitive results in religion, economic development and sense gratification is of the nature of passion, O Arjuna.

ye dhṛti dvārā nahe svapna bhaya tyāg
tāmasī se dhṛti durmedhā āra mada

Text 35: And that determination which cannot go beyond dreaming, fearfulness, lamentation, moroseness and illusion—such unintelligent determination, O son of Pṛthā, is in the mode of darkness.

trividha se sukha śuna bhārata ṛṣabha
jaḍa sukhe maje jīva kintu duḥkha saba
se sukha se uparati duḥkha anta hay
saṁsārera māyāsukha tabe hay kṣay

Text 36: O best of the Bhāratas, now please hear from Me about the three kinds of happiness by which the conditioned soul enjoys, and by which he sometimes comes to the end of all distress.

agrete viṣera sama paścāte amṛta
ye sukhera paricaya se haya sāttvika
se sukhera lābh hay ātma-pramādete
ātma-buddhi bhāgyavān yogya ye tāhāte

Text 37: That which in the beginning may be just like poison but at the end is just like nectar and which awakens one to self-realization is said to be happiness in the mode of goodness.

indriyer saṁyogete viṣayera bhog
amṛtera mata ante kintu bhava rog
pariṇāme viṣayera viṣa hay lābh
rājasika sei sukh jīvera svabhāv

Text 38: That happiness which is derived from contact of the senses with their objects and which appears like nectar at first but poison at the end is said to be of the nature of passion.

yāhā agre anuvandhe sukhera mohan
nidrālasya pramādottha tāmasika jan

Text 39: And that happiness which is blind to self-realization, which is delusion from beginning to end and which arises from sleep, laziness and illusion is said to be of the nature of ignorance.

brahmāṇḍera madhye yata nara devaloke
keha nahe mukta sei triguṇa triloke

Text 40: There is no being existing, either here or among the demigods in the higher planetary systems, which is freed from these three modes born of material nature.

brāhmaṇa kṣatriya vaiśya śūdra parantap
svabhāva prabhāve guṇ hay karma sab

Text 41: Brāhmaṇas, kṣatriyas, vaiśyas and śūdras are distinguished by the qualities born of their own natures in accordance with the material modes, O chastiser of the enemy.

śama dama tapa śouca kṣānti se ārjava
jñān vijñān āstikya brahma karma-bhāva

Text 42: Peacefulness, self-control, austerity, purity, tolerance, honesty, knowledge, wisdom and religiousness—these are the natural qualities by which the brāhmaṇas work.

śourya teja dhṛti dākṣya yuddhe nā pālāy
dān īśa bhāva yata kṣatriye yuyāye

Text 43: Heroism, power, determination, resourcefulness, courage in battle, generosity and leadership are the natural qualities of work for the kṣatriyas.

kṛṣi go-rakṣā vāṇijya vaiśya karma hay
śūdra ye svabhāva tār paricaryā karāy

Text 44: Farming, cow protection and business are the natural work for the vaiśyas, and for the śūdras there is labor and service to others.

ucca nīca yata karma sabe siddhi hay
svakarma kariyā guṇa saṁsāra taray

Text 45: By following his qualities of work, every man can become perfect. Now please hear from Me how this can be done.

yini vyaṣṭi samaṣṭi vā jagata kāraṇ
yṅāhā hate bhūtagaṇer vāsanā jīvan
svakarma kariyā yadi sei prabhu bhaje
siddhi-lābha hay tār saṁsāre nā maje

Text 46: By worship of the Lord, who is the source of all beings and who is all-pervading, a man can attain perfection through performing his own work.

asamyak anuṣṭhita nija dharma śreya
suṣṭhu ācaraṇa kare paradharme bhaya
nija svabhāva niyata yei karma anuṣṭhān
niṣpāpa haibe tāhe śāstrera vidhān

Text 47: It is better to engage in one's own occupation, even though one may perform it imperfectly, than to accept another's occupation and perform it perfectly. Duties prescribed according to one's nature are never affected by sinful reactions.

sadoṣa sahaja karma kabhu nahe āja
tāhātei siddhi lābh hṛdi sadā bhaja
jagatera saba kāj doṣ vinā nay
agrete yathā kadā dhūm dekhā yāy

Text 48: Every endeavor is covered by some fault, just as fire is covered by smoke. Therefore one should not give up the work born of his nature, O son of Kuntī, even if such work is full of fault.

doṣāṁśa tyāgete yathā guṇāṁṣa grahaṇ
nija sattā śuddha kari svadharma sādhan
anāsakta buddhi jit ātmā spṛhāhīn
naiṣkarma siddhi se hay sannyāsa pravīṇ

Text 49: One who is self-controlled and unattached and who disregards all material enjoyments can obtain, by practice of renunciation, the highest perfect stage of freedom from reaction.

siddhi-lābh kari yathā brahma prāpti hay
saṁkṣepete kahi śuna tār paricay

Text 50: O son of Kuntī, learn from Me how one who has achieved this perfection can attain to the supreme perfectional stage, Brahman, the stage of highest knowledge, by acting in the way I shall now summarize.

viśuddha se buddhi yukta dhṛti niyamita
śavdādi viṣaya tyāg rāg dveṣ-jita
vivikta ye laghubhojī yata vāk man
dhyāna yoga parā nitya vairāgya sādhan
ahaṅkār val darpa kāma parigraha
krodh ār yata āche asata āgraha
nirmama ye śānta yei brahma anubhave
niścita samartha hay tāhāte sambhave

Texts 51-53: Being purified by his intelligence and controlling the mind with determination, giving up the objects of sense gratification, being freed from attachment and hatred, one who lives in a secluded place, who eats little, who controls his body, mind and power of speech, who is always in trance and who is detached, free from false ego, false strength, false pride, lust, anger, and acceptance of material things, free from false proprietorship, and peaceful—such a person is certainly elevated to the position of self-realization.

brahma anubhav hale prasannātm hay
śok ār ākāṅkṣā se nirmala niścay
sarva-bhūta sama-buddhi tār paricay
nirguṇa āmāra bhakti tabe lābh hay

Text 54: One who is thus transcendentally situated at once realizes the Supreme Brahman and becomes fully joyful. He never laments or desires to have anything. He is equally disposed toward every living entity. In that state he attains pure devotional service unto Me.

nirguṇa bhaktite jāne āmāra svarūp
saviśeṣ nirviśeṣ tattvata ye rūp
se tattva-jñāna lābhe praveśe āmāte
āmi brahma paramātmtā bhagavān yāte

Text 55: One can understand Me as I am, as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, only by devotional service. And when one is in full consciousness of Me by such devotion, he can enter into the kingdom of God.

bhaktite prāpti se hay bhagavad svarūpa
premāpūmārtha mahān nām yār rūpa
sei premāśraye yei sarva karma kare
āmāra prasāde para-vyom lābh tare

Text 56: Though engaged in all kinds of activities, My pure devotee, under My protection, reaches the eternal and imperishable abode by My grace.

se premāśraye hao maccitta satata
āmāra lāgiyā sarva kārye hao rata
sei buddhi-yoga nām āmāra āśraya
yāhāra prabhāve kārya sarva-siddhi haya

Text 57: In all activities just depend upon Me and work always under My protection. In such devotional service, be fully conscious of Me.

maccita yei se tare āmāra prasāde
sarva-duḥkha saṁsāre duḥkha vā viṣāde
āmāra se upadeś yevā nāhi māne
ahaṅkāre matta haye vināśe āpane

Text 58: If you become conscious of Me, you will pass over all the obstacles of conditioned life by My grace. If, however, you do not work in such consciousness but act through false ego, not hearing Me, you will be lost.

ahaṇkār kari bal yuddha nā karibe
mithyā se pratijñā tumi karibe svabhāve

Text 59: If you do not act according to My direction and do not fight, then you will be falsely directed. By your nature, you will have to be engaged in warfare.

svabhāvaja karma taba avaśya sādhive
kaunteya nirvandha sab nija karma-bhāve
ataev mohavaśe icchā nāhi kara
avaśe karibe sei tumi ataḥpara

Text 60: Under illusion you are now declining to act according to My direction. But, compelled by the work born of your own nature, you will act all the same, O son of Kuntī.

īśvara āche se sarva-bhūtera hṛdaye
karma karma-phala sab niyantra karaye
māyāra yantrete tini sabāre ghurāy
bhukti vāñchā kare jīv jei yathā cāy

Text 61: The Supreme Lord is situated in everyone's heart, O Arjuna, and is directing the wanderings of all living entities, who are seated as on a machine, made of the material energy.

tṅāhāra caraṇe lao sarvato śaraṇ
prasāde haibe sarva vañchita pūraṇa
parā śānti pābe ār śāśvata ye sthān
sarva-lābh se prasāde duḥkha nivāraṇ

Text 62: O scion of Bharata, surrender unto Him utterly. By His grace you will attain transcendental peace and the supreme and eternal abode.

guhya guhyatara jñān kahilām āmi
bhāla-manda vicāra ye se karibe tumi
vicāra kariyā tumi yāhā icchā kara
upadeś āmāra se nitya tumi smara

Text 63: Thus I have explained to you knowledge still more confidential. Deliberate on this fully, and then do what you wish to do.

tadapekṣā guhyatama ār tumi śuna
atyanta se priya tumi tāi se vacana

Text 64: Because you are My very dear friend, I am speaking to you My supreme instruction, the most confidential knowledge of all. Hear this from Me, for it is for your benefit.

manmanā mad-bhakta hao more namaskār
āmāke pāibe tumi pratijñā āmār

Text 65: Always think of Me, become My devotee, worship Me and offer your homage unto Me. Thus you will come to Me without fail. I promise you this because you are My very dear friend.

sarva dharma tyāgi lao āmāra śaraṇ
rakṣiva tomāke āmi sadā sarvakṣaṇ
kona cintā nā karibe pāp nāhi habe
āmāra śaraṇe tumi parā śānti pābe

Text 66: Abandon all varieties of religion and just surrender unto Me. I shall deliver you from all sinful reactions. Do not fear.

abhakta vā atapaska paricaryā hīna
āmāra svarūpe ei yāra śraddhā kṣīṇa
upadeśa nā karibe gītāra vacan
uparokta loka sab adhikārī nan

Text 67: This confidential knowledge may never be explained to those who are not austere, or devoted, or engaged in devotional service, nor to one who is envious of Me.

āmāra bhaktake yevā upadeś kare
parābhakti lābh kari pāibe āmāre

Text 68: For one who explains this supreme secret to the devotees, pure devotional service is guaranteed, and at the end he will come back to Me.

tadapekṣā naraloke priya nāhi mor
hay nāi habe nāi ānande bibhor

Text 69: There is no servant in this world more dear to Me than he, nor will there ever be one more dear.

āmāra e upadeś yevā vicār karibe
tār jñāna-yajñe mor upāsanā habe

Text 70: And I declare that he who studies this sacred conversation of ours worships Me by his intelligence.

śraddhāvān haye yārā śravaṇa karibe
puṇyavān tār śubha loka-prāpti habe

Text 71: And one who listens with faith and without envy becomes free from sinful reactions and attains to the auspicious planets where the pious dwell.

dhanañjay, kaha eve kivā śaṅkā hala dūr
ekāgrete upadeś śuniyā pracur
he pārtha, kivā tava ajñāna andhakār
pranaṣṭa haiyā gela tava duḥkha bhār

Text 72: O son of Pṛthā, O conqueror of wealth, have you heard this with an attentive mind? And are your ignorance and illusions now dispelled?

arjun kahilen:
naṣṭa moha smṛti lābha tomāra prasāde
acyuta, sandeha gela nāhi se viṣāde
sthita āmi nija kārye tomāra vacana
niścayai kariba āmi ghucila vandhana

Text 73: Arjuna said: My dear Kṛṣṇa, O infallible one, my illusion is now gone. I have regained my memory by Your mercy. I am now firm and free from doubt and am prepared to act according to Your instructions.

sañjay kahilen:
sei se śunechi āmi kṛṣṇārjuna kathā
adbhuta saṁvāda romaharṣaṇa sarvathā

Text 74: Sañjaya said: Thus have I heard the conversation of two great souls, Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna. And so wonderful is that message that my hair is standing on end.

vyāsera prasāde āmi śunilām sei
parama se guhyatama tulanā ye nei
ei yog yogeśvara kṛṣṇa se kahila
sākṣāt tṅāhār mukhe āmi se śunila

Text 75: By the mercy of Vyāsa, I have heard these most confidential talks directly from the master of all mysticism, Kṛṣṇa, who was speaking personally to Arjuna.

smaraṇa kariyā rājā punaḥ punaḥ sei
adbhuta saṁvāda smari hṛṣṭa āmi hai
keśava āra arjun kathā puṇya gītā
muhūrhmuhu śune nitya sarvahite ratā

Text 76: O King, as I repeatedly recall this wondrous and holy dialogue between Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna, I take pleasure, being thrilled at every moment.

smaraṇa kariyā sei adbhuta svarūpa
punaḥ punaḥ hṛṣṭa man hay aparūpa

Text 77: O King, as I remember the wonderful form of Lord Kṛṣṇa, I am struck with wonder more and more, and I rejoice again and again.

yathā yogeśvar kṛṣṇa pārtha dhanurdhar
tathā śrī vijaya bhūti dhruva nirantar
yei nām sei kṛṣṇa nāhi se antara
śuddha nām yār hay sei dhurandhara

Text 78: Wherever there is Kṛṣṇa, the master of all mystics, and wherever there is Arjuna, the supreme archer, there will also certainly be opulence, victory, extraordinary power, and morality. That is my opinion.

bhaktivedānta kahe śrī-gītāra gān
śune yadi śuddha bhakta kṛṣṇagata-prāṇ

Thus Bhaktivedānta sings the song of Śrī Gītā, with the hope that hearing this, Kṛṣṇa conscious pure devotees will be pleased.