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Madhya 25: How All the Residents of Vārāṇasī Became Vaiṣṇavas

The following is a summary of chapter twenty-five. A Maharashtriyan brāhmaṇa who was living in Benares was a great devotee of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. He was always very happy to hear the glories of the Lord, and it was by his arrangement that all the sannyāsīs of Vārāṇasī became devotees of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu. He invited all the sannyāsīs to his house to meet Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, and this incident has been described in the seventh chapter of the Ādi-līlā. From that day, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu became famous in the city of Vārāṇasī, and many important men in that city became His followers. By and by, one of the disciples of the great sannyāsī Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī became devoted to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, and this devotee explained Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu to Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī and supported His views with various arguments.

One day Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu went to take a bath at Pañcanada, and afterwards all His devotees began chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra in front of the temple of Bindu Mādhava. At this time Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī and all his devotees approached the Lord. Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī immediately fell down at the lotus feet of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and very much regretted his past behavior toward the Lord. He asked Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu about devotional service in terms of the Vedānta-sūtra, and the Lord told him about devotional service that is approved by great personalities who know the Vedānta-sūtra. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then pointed out that Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is the proper commentary on the Vedānta-sūtra. He then explained the catuḥ-ślokī (four ślokas) of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, the essence of that great scripture.

From that day on, all the sannyāsīs of Vārāṇasī became devotees of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Before returning to His headquarters at Jagannātha Purī, the Lord advised Sanātana Gosvāmī to go to Vṛndāvana. The Lord then departed for Jagannātha Purī. Kavirāja Gosvāmī then describes something about Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī, Sanātana Gosvāmī and Subuddhi Rāya. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu returned to Jagannātha Purī through the great forest of Jhārikhaṇḍa (Jharkhand) in central India. At the end of this chapter, Kavirāja Gosvāmī sums up the incidents of the madhya-līlā and instructs every living being to read this sublime book of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s pastimes.

CC Madhya 25.1 After converting into Vaiṣṇavas all the residents of Vārāṇasī, who were headed by the sannyāsīs, and after completely educating and instructing Sanātana Gosvāmī there, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu returned to Jagannātha Purī.
CC Madhya 25.2 All glories to Lord Caitanya! All glories to Lord Nityānanda! All glories to Advaitacandra! And all glories to all the devotees of Lord Caitanya!
CC Madhya 25.3 Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu instructed Śrī Sanātana Gosvāmī in all the conclusions of devotional service for two consecutive months.
CC Madhya 25.4 For as long as Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was in Vārāṇasī, Paramānanda Kīrtanīyā, who was a friend of Candraśekhara’s, chanted the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra and other songs to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu in a very humorous way.
CC Madhya 25.5 When the Māyāvādī sannyāsīs at Vārāṇasī criticized Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, the Lord’s devotees became very much depressed. To satisfy them, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu showed His mercy to the sannyāsīs.
CC Madhya 25.6 In the seventh chapter of the Ādi-līlā I have already elaborately described Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s deliverance of the sannyāsīs at Vārāṇasī, but I shall briefly repeat it in this chapter.
CC Madhya 25.7 When the Māyāvādī sannyāsīs were criticizing Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu anywhere and everywhere in Vārāṇasī, the Maharashtriyan brāhmaṇa, hearing this blasphemy, began to think about this unhappily.
CC Madhya 25.8 The Maharashtriyan brāhmaṇa thought, “Whoever closely sees the characteristics of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu immediately realizes His personality and accepts Him as the Supreme Lord.
CC Madhya 25.9 “If by some means I can assemble all the sannyāsīs together, they will certainly become His devotees after seeing His personal characteristics.
CC Madhya 25.10 “I shall have to reside at Vārāṇasī the rest of my life. If I do not try to carry out this plan, I shall certainly continue to suffer mental depression.”
CC Madhya 25.11 Thinking like this, the Maharashtriyan brāhmaṇa extended an invitation to all the sannyāsīs of Vārāṇasī. After doing this, he finally approached Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu to extend Him an invitation.
CC Madhya 25.12 At this time, Candraśekhara and Tapana Miśra both heard blasphemous criticism against Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and felt very unhappy. They came to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s lotus feet to submit a request.
CC Madhya 25.13 They submitted their request, and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, seeing His devotees’ unhappiness, decided to turn the minds of the Māyāvādī sannyāsīs.
CC Madhya 25.14 While Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was seriously considering meeting with the Māyāvādī sannyāsīs, the Maharashtriyan brāhmaṇa approached Him and extended an invitation. The brāhmaṇa submitted his invitation with great humility, and he touched the lotus feet of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
CC Madhya 25.15 Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu accepted his invitation, and the next day, after finishing His noontime activities, He went to the brāhmaṇa’s house.
CC Madhya 25.16 I have already described Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s deliverance of the Māyāvādī sannyāsīs in the seventh chapter of the Ādi-līlā, when I described the glories of the Pañca-tattva — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu, Advaita Prabhu, Gadādhara Prabhu and Śrīvāsa.
CC Madhya 25.17 Since I have already described this incident very elaborately in the seventh chapter of the Ādi-līlā, I do not wish to increase the size of this book by giving another description. However, I shall try to include in this chapter whatever was not described there.
CC Madhya 25.18 Beginning from the day on which Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu showed His mercy to the Māyāvādī sannyāsīs, there were vivid discussions about this conversion among the inhabitants of Vārāṇasī.
CC Madhya 25.19 Crowds of people came to see Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu from that day on, and scholars of various scriptures discussed different subject matters with the Lord.
CC Madhya 25.20 When people came to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu to discuss the principles of various scriptures, the Lord defeated their false conclusions and established the predominance of devotional service to the Lord. With logic and argument He very politely changed their minds.
CC Madhya 25.21 As soon as people received instructions from Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, they began to chant the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra. Thus everyone laughed, chanted and danced with the Lord.
CC Madhya 25.22 All the Māyāvādī sannyāsīs offered their obeisances unto Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and then began to discuss His movement, giving up their studies of Vedānta and Māyāvāda philosophy.
CC Madhya 25.23 One of the disciples of Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī, who was as learned as his guru, began to speak in that assembly, offering all respects to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
CC Madhya 25.24 He said, “Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Nārāyaṇa Himself. When He explains the Vedānta-sūtra, He does so very nicely.
CC Madhya 25.25 “Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu explains the direct meaning of the Upaniṣads. When all learned scholars hear this, their minds and ears are satisfied.
CC Madhya 25.26 “Giving up the direct meaning of the Vedānta-sūtra and the Upaniṣads, Śaṅkarācārya imagines some other interpretation.
CC Madhya 25.27 “All the interpretations of Śaṅkarācārya are imaginary. Such imaginary interpretations are verbally accepted by learned scholars, but they do not appeal to the heart.
CC Madhya 25.28 “The words of Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Mahāprabhu are firm and convincing, and I accept them as true. In this Age of Kali, one cannot be delivered from the material clutches simply by formally accepting the renounced order.
CC Madhya 25.29 “Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s explanation of the verse beginning ‘harer nāma harer nāma’ is not only pleasing to the ear but is strong, factual evidence.
CC Madhya 25.30 “In this Age of Kali, one cannot attain liberation without taking to the devotional service of the Lord. In this age, even if one chants the holy name of Kṛṣṇa imperfectly, he still attains liberation very easily.
CC Madhya 25.31 “ ‘My dear Lord, devotional service unto You is the only auspicious path. If one gives it up simply for speculative knowledge or the understanding that these living beings are spirit souls and the material world is false, he undergoes a great deal of trouble. He only gains troublesome and inauspicious activities. His actions are like beating a husk that is already devoid of rice. His labor becomes fruitless.’
CC Madhya 25.32 “ ‘O lotus-eyed one, those who think they are liberated in this life but who are devoid of devotional service to You are of impure intelligence. Although they accept severe austerities and penances and rise to the spiritual position, to impersonal Brahman realization, they fall down again because they neglect to worship Your lotus feet.’
CC Madhya 25.33 “The word ‘Brahman’ [‘the greatest’] indicates the Supreme Personality of Godhead, full in all six opulences. But if we take the onesided impersonalist view, His fullness is diminished.
CC Madhya 25.34 “The Vedas, the Upaniṣads, the Brahma-sūtra and the Purāṇas all describe the activities of the spiritual potency of the Lord. If one cannot accept the personal activities of the Lord, he jokes foolishly and gives an impersonal description.
CC Madhya 25.35 “The Māyāvādīs do not recognize the personal form of the Lord as spiritual and full of bliss. This is a great sin. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s statements are actually factual.
CC Madhya 25.36 “ ‘O supreme one, the transcendental form I am now seeing is full of transcendental bliss. It is not contaminated by the external energy. It is full of effulgence. My Lord, there is no better understanding of You than this. You are the Supreme Soul and the creator of this material world, but You are not connected with this material world. You are completely different from created form and variety. I sincerely take shelter of that form of Yours which I am now seeing. This form is the original source of all living beings and their senses.’
CC Madhya 25.37 “ ‘Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is the cause of all causes. He is past, present and future, and He is the movable and immovable. He is the greatest and the smallest, and He is visible and directly experienced. He is celebrated in the Vedic literature. Everything is Kṛṣṇa, and without Him there is no existence. He is the root of all understanding, and He is that which is understood by all words.’
CC Madhya 25.38 “ ‘O most auspicious one! For our benefit, You enable our worship of You by manifesting Your transcendental form, which You show to us in our meditation. We offer our respectful obeisances unto You, the Supreme Person, and we worship You, whom impersonalists do not accept due to their poor fund of knowledge. Thus they are liable to descend into a hellish condition.’
CC Madhya 25.39 “ ‘Fools disrespect Me because I appear like a human being. They do not know My supreme position as the cause of all causes, the creator of the material energy.’
CC Madhya 25.40 “ ‘Those who are envious of My form, who are cruel and mischievous and the lowest among men, are perpetually cast by Me into hellish existence in various demoniac species of life.’
CC Madhya 25.41 “Not accepting the transformation of energy, Śrīpāda Śaṅkarācārya has tried to establish the theory of illusion under the plea that Vyāsadeva has made a mistake.
CC Madhya 25.42 “Śrīpāda Śaṅkarācārya has given his interpretation and imaginary meaning. It does not actually appeal to the mind of any sane man. He has done this to convince the atheists and bring them under his control.
CC Madhya 25.43 “The atheists, headed by the Māyāvādī philosophers, do not care for liberation or Kṛṣṇa’s mercy. They simply continue to put forward false arguments and countertheories to atheistic philosophy, not considering or engaging in spiritual matters.
CC Madhya 25.44 “The conclusion is that the import of the Vedānta-sūtra is covered by the imaginary explanation of Śaṅkarācārya. Whatever Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Mahāprabhu has said is perfectly true.
CC Madhya 25.45 “Whatever meaning Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu gives is perfect. Any other interpretation is only a distortion.”
CC Madhya 25.46 After saying this, the disciple of Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī began to chant the holy name of Kṛṣṇa. Hearing this, Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī made the following statement.
CC Madhya 25.47 Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī said, “Śaṅkarācārya was very eager to establish the philosophy of monism. Therefore he explained the Vedānta-sūtra, or Vedānta philosophy, in a different way to support monistic philosophy.
CC Madhya 25.48 “If one accepts the Personality of Godhead, the philosophy that maintains that God and the living entity are one cannot be established. Therefore Śaṅkarācārya argued against and refuted all kinds of revealed scriptures.
CC Madhya 25.49 “Anyone who wants to establish his own opinion or philosophy certainly cannot explain any scripture according to the principle of direct interpretation.
CC Madhya 25.50 “The Mīmāṁsaka philosophers conclude that if there is a God, He is subject to our fruitive activities. Similarly, the Sāṅkhya philosophers, who analyze the cosmic manifestation, say that the cause of the cosmos is material nature.
CC Madhya 25.51 “The followers of nyāya, the philosophy of logic, maintain that the atom is the cause of the cosmic manifestation, and the Māyāvādī philosophers maintain that the impersonal Brahman effulgence is the cause of the cosmic manifestation.
CC Madhya 25.52 “The Pātañjala philosophers say that when one is self-realized, he understands the Lord. Similarly, according to the Vedas and Vedic principles, the original cause is the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
CC Madhya 25.53 “After studying the six philosophical theses, Vyāsadeva completely summarized them all in the aphorisms of Vedānta philosophy.
CC Madhya 25.54 “According to Vedānta philosophy, the Absolute Truth is a person. When the word ‘nirguṇa’ [‘without qualities’] is used, it is to be understood that the Lord has attributes that are totally spiritual.
CC Madhya 25.55 “Of the philosophers mentioned, none really cares for the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the cause of all causes. They are always busy refuting the philosophical theories of others and establishing their own.
CC Madhya 25.56 “By studying the six philosophical theories, one cannot reach the Absolute Truth. It is therefore our duty to follow the path of the mahājanas, the authorities. Whatever they say should be accepted as the supreme truth.
CC Madhya 25.57 “ ‘Dry arguments are inconclusive. A great personality whose opinion does not differ from others is not considered a great sage. Simply by studying the Vedas, which are variegated, one cannot come to the right path by which religious principles are understood. The solid truth of religious principles is hidden in the heart of an unadulterated, self-realized person. Consequently, as the śāstras confirm, one should accept whatever progressive path the mahājanas advocate.’
CC Madhya 25.58 “The words of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu are a shower of nectar. Whatever He concludes to be the ultimate truth is indeed the summum bonum of all spiritual knowledge.”
CC Madhya 25.59 After hearing all these statements, the Maharashtriyan brāhmaṇa very jubilantly went to inform Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
CC Madhya 25.60 When the Maharashtriyan brāhmaṇa went to see Caitanya Mahāprabhu, the Lord was going to the temple of Bindu Mādhava after bathing in the waters of the Pañca-nada.
CC Madhya 25.61 While the Lord was on His way, the Maharashtriyan brāhmaṇa informed Him about the incident that took place in the camp of Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī. Hearing this, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu smiled happily.
CC Madhya 25.62 Upon reaching the temple of Bindu Mādhava, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, seeing the beauty of Lord Bindu Mādhava, became overwhelmed in ecstatic love. He then began to dance in the courtyard of the temple.
CC Madhya 25.63 There were four people accompanying Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, and these were Candraśekhara, Paramānanda Purī, Tapana Miśra and Sanātana Gosvāmī. They were all chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra in the following way.
CC Madhya 25.64 They chanted, “Haraye namaḥ kṛṣṇa yādavāya namaḥ, gopāla govinda rāma śrī-madhusūdana.”
CC Madhya 25.65 In all directions, hundreds of thousands of people began to chant, “Hari! Hari!” Thus there arose a tumultuous and auspicious sound filling the entire universe.
CC Madhya 25.66 When Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī, who was staying nearby, heard this tumultuous chanting of the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra, he and his disciples immediately came to see the Lord.
CC Madhya 25.67 When Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī saw the Lord, he and his disciples also joined the chanting with Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī was charmed by the Lord’s dancing and ecstatic love and by the transcendental beauty of His body.
CC Madhya 25.68 Ecstatic spiritual transformations began to take place in the Lord’s body. His body trembled, and His voice faltered. He perspired, turned pale and wept a constant flow of tears, which wet all the people standing there. The eruptions on the Lord’s body appeared like kadamba flowers.
CC Madhya 25.69 All the people were astonished to see the Lord’s jubilation and humility and to hear Him talk in ecstasy. Indeed, all the residents of Benares [Kāśī] saw the bodily transformations and were astonished.
CC Madhya 25.70 When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu regained His external consciousness, He saw that many Māyāvādī sannyāsīs and other people were gathered there. He therefore suspended His dancing for the time being.
CC Madhya 25.71 After stopping the kīrtana, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, who is a great example of humility, offered prayers unto the feet of Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī. At this, Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī immediately came forward and clasped the Lord’s lotus feet.
CC Madhya 25.72 When Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī caught hold of the Lord’s lotus feet, the Lord said, “My dear sir, you are the spiritual master of the whole world; therefore you are most worshipable. As far as I am concerned, I am not even on the level of the disciple of your disciple.”
CC Madhya 25.73 Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu continued, “You are a great, spiritually advanced personality, and therefore you cannot worship a person like Me. I am far inferior. If you do so, My spiritual power will be diminished, for you are as good as the impersonal Brahman.
CC Madhya 25.74 “My dear sir, for you everyone is on the level of impersonal Brahman, but for the enlightenment of people in general you should not behave in that way.”
CC Madhya 25.75 Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī replied, “Formerly I committed many offenses against You by blaspheming You, but now the effects of my offenses are counteracted by my touching Your lotus feet.
CC Madhya 25.76 “ ‘If a person considered liberated in this life commits offenses against the reservoir of inconceivable potencies, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, he will again fall down and desire the material atmosphere for material enjoyment.’
CC Madhya 25.77 “ ‘Being touched by the lotus feet of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, that serpent was immediately freed from the reactions of his sinful life. Thus the serpent gave up his body and assumed the body of a beautiful Vidyādhara demigod.’ ”
CC Madhya 25.78 When Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī supported himself by quoting the verse from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu immediately protested by uttering the holy name of Lord Viṣṇu. The Lord then presented Himself as a most fallen living entity, and He said, “If someone accepts a fallen conditioned soul as Viṣṇu, Bhagavān, or an incarnation, he commits a great offense.”
CC Madhya 25.79 Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu continued, “To say nothing of ordinary living entities, even Lord Brahmā and Lord Śiva cannot be considered on the level of Viṣṇu or Nārāyaṇa. If one considers them as such, he is immediately considered an offender and atheist.
CC Madhya 25.80 “ ‘A person who considers demigods like Brahmā and Śiva to be on an equal level with Nārāyaṇa is to be considered an offender, a pāṣaṇḍī.’ ”
CC Madhya 25.81 Prakāśānanda replied, “You are the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa Himself. Nonetheless, You are considering Yourself His eternal servant.
CC Madhya 25.82 “My dear Lord, You are the Supreme Lord, and although You consider Yourself the Lord’s servant, You are nonetheless worshipable. You are much greater than I am; therefore all my spiritual achievements have been lost because I have blasphemed You.
CC Madhya 25.83 “ ‘O great sage, out of many millions of materially liberated people who are free from ignorance, and out of many millions of siddhas who have nearly attained perfection, there is hardly one pure devotee of Nārāyaṇa. Only such a devotee is actually completely satisfied and peaceful.’
CC Madhya 25.84 “ ‘When a person mistreats great souls, his life span, opulence, reputation, religion, possessions and good fortune are all destroyed.’
CC Madhya 25.85 “ ‘Unless human society accepts the dust of the lotus feet of great mahātmās — devotees who have nothing to do with material possessions — mankind cannot turn its attention to the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa. Those lotus feet vanquish all the unwanted, miserable conditions of material life.’
CC Madhya 25.86 “Henceforward I shall certainly develop devotional service unto Your lotus feet. For this reason I have come to You and have fallen down at Your lotus feet.”
CC Madhya 25.87 After saying this, Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī sat down with Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and began to question the Lord as follows.
CC Madhya 25.88 Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī said, “We can understand the faults You have pointed out in the Māyāvāda philosophy. All the explanations given by Śaṅkarācārya are imaginary.
CC Madhya 25.89 “My dear Lord, whatever direct meaning You have given when explaining the Brahma-sūtra is certainly very wonderful to all of us.
CC Madhya 25.90 “You are the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and therefore You have inconceivable energies. I wish to hear from You briefly about the Brahma-sūtra.”
CC Madhya 25.91 Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu replied, “I am an ordinary living being, and therefore My knowledge is very insignificant. However, the meaning of the Brahma-sūtra is very grave because its author, Vyāsadeva, is the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself.
CC Madhya 25.92 “The purport of the Vedānta-sūtra is very difficult for an ordinary person to understand, but Vyāsadeva, out of his causeless mercy, has personally explained the meaning.
CC Madhya 25.93 “If the Vedānta-sūtra is explained by Vyāsadeva himself, who has written it, its original meaning can be understood by the people in general.
CC Madhya 25.94 “The meaning of the sound vibration oṁkāra is present in the Gāyatrī mantra. The same is elaborately explained in the four ślokas of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam known as the catuḥ-ślokī.
CC Madhya 25.95 “Whatever was spoken by the Supreme Personality of Godhead to Lord Brahmā in those four verses of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam was also explained to Nārada by Lord Brahmā.
CC Madhya 25.96 “Whatever Lord Brahmā told Nārada Muni was again explained by Nārada Muni to Vyāsadeva. Vyāsadeva later considered these instructions in his mind.
CC Madhya 25.97 “Śrīla Vyāsadeva considered that whatever he had received from Nārada Muni as an explanation of oṁkāra he would elaborately explain in his book Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam as a commentary on the Brahma-sūtra.
CC Madhya 25.98 “Vyāsadeva collected whatever Vedic conclusions were in the four Vedas and 108 Upaniṣads and placed them in the aphorisms of the Vedānta-sūtra.
CC Madhya 25.99 “In the Vedānta-sūtra, the purport of all Vedic knowledge is explained, and in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam the same purport has been explained in eighteen thousand verses.
CC Madhya 25.100 “Therefore it is to be concluded that the Brahma-sūtra is explained vividly in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Also, what is explained in the verses of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam has the same purport as what is explained in the Upaniṣads.
CC Madhya 25.101 “ ‘Everything animate or inanimate that is within the universe is controlled and owned by the Lord. One should therefore accept only those things for himself that are set aside as his quota, and one should not accept other things, knowing well to whom they belong.’
CC Madhya 25.102 “The essence of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam — our relationship with the Supreme Lord, our activities in that connection and the goal of life — is manifest in the four verses of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam known as the catuḥ-ślokī. Everything is explained in those verses.
CC Madhya 25.103 “[Lord Kṛṣṇa says:] ‘I am the center of all relationships. Knowledge of Me and the practical application of that knowledge is actual knowledge. Approaching Me for devotional service is called abhidheya.
CC Madhya 25.104 “ ‘By rendering devotional service, one gradually rises to the platform of love of Godhead. That is the chief goal of life. On the platform of love of Godhead, one is eternally engaged in the service of the Lord.
CC Madhya 25.105 “ ‘Please hear attentively what I shall speak to you, for transcendental knowledge about Me is not only scientific but full of mysteries.
CC Madhya 25.106 “ ‘O Brahmā, I shall explain all these truths to you. Since you are a living being [jīva], without My explanation you will not be able to understand your relationship with Me, devotional activity and life’s ultimate goal.
CC Madhya 25.107 “ ‘I shall explain to you My actual form and situation, My attributes, activities and six opulences.’
CC Madhya 25.108 “Lord Kṛṣṇa assured Lord Brahmā, ‘By My mercy all these things will be awakened in you.’ Saying this, the Lord began to explain the three truths [tattvas] to Lord Brahmā.
CC Madhya 25.109 “ ‘By My causeless mercy, be enlightened in truth about My personality, manifestations, qualities and pastimes.
CC Madhya 25.110 “ ‘Before the creation of the cosmic manifestation,’ the Lord said, ‘I existed, and the total material energy, material nature and the living entities all existed in Me.
CC Madhya 25.111 “ ‘After creating the cosmic manifestation, I entered into it. Whatever you see in the cosmic manifestation is but an expansion of My energy.
CC Madhya 25.112 “ ‘When the whole universe dissolves, I remain full in Myself, and everything that was manifested is again preserved in Me.
CC Madhya 25.113 “ ‘Prior to the cosmic manifestation, only I exist, and no phenomena exist, either gross, subtle or primordial. After creation, only I exist in everything, and after annihilation, only I remain eternally.’
CC Madhya 25.114 “In the verse beginning ‘aham eva,’ the word ‘aham’ is expressed three times. In the beginning there are the words ‘aham eva.’ In the second line there are the words ‘paścād aham.’ At the end are the words ‘so ’smy aham.’ This ‘aham’ indicates the Supreme Person. By the repetition of ‘aham,’ the transcendental personality who is complete with six opulences is confirmed.
CC Madhya 25.115 “Impersonalists do not accept the personal feature of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The Personality of Godhead is stressed in this verse in order to impress upon them the necessity of accepting Him. Therefore the word ‘aham’ is mentioned three times. To stress something important, one repeats it three times.
CC Madhya 25.116 “[Lord Kṛṣṇa continued:] ‘Actual spiritual knowledge and its practical application are considered in all these sound vibrations. Although the external energy comes from Me, I am different from it.
CC Madhya 25.117 “ ‘Sometimes a reflection of the sun is experienced in place of the sun, but its illumination is never possible independent of the sun.
CC Madhya 25.118 “ ‘When one is transcendentally situated, he can perceive Me. This perception is the basis of one’s relationship with the Supreme Lord. Now let Me further explain this subject matter.
CC Madhya 25.119 “ ‘What appears to be truth without Me is certainly My illusory energy, for nothing can exist without Me. It is like a reflection of a real light in the shadows, for in the light there are neither shadows nor reflections.
CC Madhya 25.120 “ ‘Now please hear from Me about the process of devotional service, which is applicable in any country, for any person, at all times and in all circumstances.
CC Madhya 25.121 “ ‘As far as religious principles are concerned, there is a consideration of the person, the country, the time and the circumstance. In devotional service, however, there are no such considerations. Devotional service is transcendental to all such considerations.
CC Madhya 25.122 “ ‘It is therefore the duty of every man — in every country, in every circumstance and at all times — to approach a bona fide spiritual master, question him about devotional service and listen to him explain the process.
CC Madhya 25.123 “ ‘A person interested in transcendental knowledge must therefore always directly and indirectly inquire about it to know about the all-pervading truth.
CC Madhya 25.124 “ ‘Supreme affection for Me is called love of Godhead, and that is the ultimate goal of life. Let Me explain by a practical example the natural characteristics of such love.
CC Madhya 25.125 “ ‘The five material elements are existing inside and outside of every living entity. Similarly, I, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, am manifest within the heart of the devotee as well as outside his body.
CC Madhya 25.126 “ ‘As the material elements enter the bodies of all living beings and yet remain outside them all, I exist within all material creations and yet am not within them.
CC Madhya 25.127 “ ‘A highly elevated devotee can bind Me, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, in his heart by love. Wherever he looks, he sees Me and nothing else.
CC Madhya 25.128 “ ‘Hari, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who destroys everything inauspicious for His devotees, does not leave the hearts of His devotees even if they remember Him and chant about Him inattentively. This is because the rope of love always binds the Lord within the devotees’ hearts. Such devotees should be accepted as most elevated.
CC Madhya 25.129 “ ‘A person advanced in devotional service sees within everything the soul of souls, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Consequently he always sees the form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead as the cause of all causes and understands that all things are situated in Him.
CC Madhya 25.130 “ ‘All the gopīs assembled to chant the transcendental qualities of Kṛṣṇa very loudly, and they began to wander from one forest to another like madwomen. They began to inquire about the Lord, who is situated in all living entities, internally and externally. Indeed, they even asked all the plants and vegetables about Him, the Supreme Person.’ ”
CC Madhya 25.131 Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu continued, “Thus one’s relationship with the Lord, activities in devotional service, and the attainment of the highest goal of life, love of Godhead, are the subject matters of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.
CC Madhya 25.132 “ ‘The Absolute Truth is known by the self-realized souls as a unified identity known by different names — impersonal Brahman, localized Paramātmā, and Bhagavān, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.’
CC Madhya 25.133 “ ‘Before the cosmic manifestation was created, the creative propensity was merged in the Supreme Lord’s person. At that time all potencies and manifestations were preserved in His personality. The Lord is the cause of all causes, and He is the all- pervading, self-sufficient person. Before the creation, He existed with His spiritual potency in the spiritual world, wherein various Vaikuṇṭha planets are manifested.’
CC Madhya 25.134 “ ‘All these incarnations of Godhead are either plenary portions or parts of the plenary portions of the puruṣa-avatāras. But Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself. In every age He protects the world through His different features when the world is disturbed by the enemies of Indra.’
CC Madhya 25.135 “This is one’s eternal relationship with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Now please hear about the execution of devotional service. This principle pervades each and every verse of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.
CC Madhya 25.136 “[Lord Kṛṣṇa said:] ‘Being very dear to the devotees and sādhus, I am attained through unflinching faith and devotional service. This bhakti-yoga system, which gradually increases attachment for Me, purifies even a human being born among dog-eaters. That is to say, everyone can be elevated to the spiritual platform by the process of bhakti-yoga.’
CC Madhya 25.137 “[The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, said:] ‘My dear Uddhava, neither through aṣṭāṅga-yoga [the mystic yoga system to control the senses], nor through impersonal monism or an analytical study of the Absolute Truth, nor through study of the Vedas, nor through austerities, charity or acceptance of sannyāsa can one satisfy Me as much as by developing unalloyed devotional service unto Me.’
CC Madhya 25.138 “ ‘When the living entity is attracted by the material energy, which is separate from Kṛṣṇa, he is overpowered by fear. Because he is separated from the Supreme Personality of Godhead by the material energy, his conception of life is reversed. In other words, instead of being the eternal servant of Kṛṣṇa, he becomes Kṛṣṇa’s competitor. This is called viparyayo ’smṛtiḥ. To nullify this mistake, one who is actually learned and advanced worships the Supreme Personality of Godhead as his spiritual master, worshipful Deity and source of life. He thus worships the Lord by the process of unalloyed devotional service.’
CC Madhya 25.139 “Now hear from Me what actual love of Godhead is. It is the prime object of life and is symptomized by bodily trembling, tears in the eyes, chanting and dancing.
CC Madhya 25.140 “ ‘Pure devotees manifest spiritual bodily symptoms of ecstatic love simply by remembering and reminding others of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Hari, who takes away everything inauspicious from the devotee. This position is attained by rendering devotional service according to the regulative principles and then rising to the platform of spontaneous love.’
CC Madhya 25.141 “ ‘When a person is actually advanced and takes pleasure in chanting the holy name of the Lord, who is very dear to him, he is agitated and loudly chants the holy name. He also laughs, cries, becomes agitated and chants like a madman, not caring for outsiders.’
CC Madhya 25.142 “Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam gives the actual meaning of the Vedānta-sūtra. The author of the Vedānta-sūtra is Vyāsadeva, and he himself has explained those aphorisms in the form of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.
CC Madhya 25.143-144 “ ‘The meaning of the Vedānta-sūtra is present in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. The full purport of the Mahābhārata is also there. The commentary of the Brahma-gāyatrī is also there and fully expanded with all Vedic knowledge. Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is the supreme Purāṇa, and it was compiled by the Supreme Personality of Godhead in His incarnation as Vyāsadeva. There are twelve cantos, 335 chapters and eighteen thousand verses.’
CC Madhya 25.145 “ ‘The essence of all Vedic literature and all histories has been collected in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.’
CC Madhya 25.146 “ ‘Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is accepted as the essence of all Vedic literature and Vedānta philosophy. Whoever tastes the transcendental mellow of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is never attracted to any other literature.’
CC Madhya 25.147 “In the beginning of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam there is an explanation of the Brahma-gāyatrī mantra. ‘The Absolute Truth [satyaṁ param]’ indicates the relationship, and ‘we meditate [dhīmahi] on Him’ indicates the execution of devotional service and the ultimate goal of life.
CC Madhya 25.148 “ ‘O my Lord, Śrī Kṛṣṇa, son of Vasudeva, O all-pervading Personality of Godhead, I offer my respectful obeisances unto You. I meditate upon Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa because He is the Absolute Truth and the primeval cause of all causes of the creation, sustenance and destruction of the manifested universes. He is directly and indirectly conscious of all manifestations, and He is independent because there is no other cause beyond Him. It is He only who first imparted the Vedic knowledge unto the heart of Brahmājī, the original living being. By Him even the great sages and demigods are placed into illusion, as one is bewildered by the illusory representations of water seen in fire, or land seen on water. Only because of Him do the material universes, temporarily manifested by the reactions of the three modes of nature, appear factual, although they are unreal. I therefore meditate upon Him, Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, who is eternally existent in the transcendental abode, which is forever free from the illusory representations of the material world. I meditate upon Him, for He is the Absolute Truth.
CC Madhya 25.149 “ ‘Completely rejecting all religious activities which are materially motivated, this Bhāgavata Purāṇa propounds the highest truth, which is understandable by those devotees who are fully pure in heart. The highest truth is reality distinguished from illusion for the welfare of all. Such truth uproots the threefold miseries. This beautiful Bhāgavatam, compiled by the great sage Vyāsadeva [in his maturity], is sufficient in itself for God realization. What is the need of any other scripture? As soon as one attentively and submissively hears the message of Bhāgavatam, by this culture of knowledge the Supreme Lord is established within his heart.’
CC Madhya 25.150 “Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam gives direct information of the mellow derived from service to Kṛṣṇa. Therefore Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is above all other Vedic literatures.
CC Madhya 25.151 “ ‘The Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is the essence of all Vedic literatures, and it is considered the ripened fruit of the wish-fulfilling tree of Vedic knowledge. It has been sweetened by emanating from the mouth of Śukadeva Gosvāmī. You who are thoughtful and who relish mellows should always try to taste this ripened fruit. O thoughtful devotees, as long as you are not absorbed in transcendental bliss, you should continue tasting this Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, and when you are fully absorbed in bliss, you should go on tasting its mellows forever.’
CC Madhya 25.152 “ ‘We never tire of hearing the transcendental pastimes of the Personality of Godhead, who is glorified by hymns and prayers. Those who enjoy association with Him relish hearing His pastimes at every moment.’ ”
CC Madhya 25.153 Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu advised Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī, “Study Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam very scrutinizingly. Then you will understand the actual meaning of the Brahma-sūtra.”
CC Madhya 25.154 Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu continued, “Always discuss Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam and constantly chant the holy name of Lord Kṛṣṇa. In this way you will be able to attain liberation very easily, and you will be elevated to the enjoyment of love of Godhead.
CC Madhya 25.155 “ ‘One who is thus transcendentally situated at once realizes the Supreme Brahman and becomes fully joyful. He never laments or desires to have anything. He is equally disposed toward every living entity. In that state he attains pure devotional service unto Me.’
CC Madhya 25.156 “ ‘Even a liberated soul merged in the impersonal Brahman effulgence is attracted to the pastimes of Kṛṣṇa. He thus installs a Deity and renders the Lord service.’
CC Madhya 25.157 “[Śukadeva Gosvāmī addressed Parīkṣit Mahārāja:] ‘My dear King, although I was fully situated in the transcendental position, I was nonetheless attracted to the pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa. Therefore I studied Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam from my father.’
CC Madhya 25.158 “ ‘When the breeze carrying the aroma of tulasī leaves and saffron from the lotus feet of the lotus-eyed Personality of Godhead entered through the nostrils into the hearts of those sages [the Kumāras], they experienced a change in both body and mind, even though they were attached to the impersonal Brahman understanding.’
CC Madhya 25.159 “ ‘Those who are self-satisfied and unattracted by external material desires are also attracted to the loving service of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, whose qualities are transcendental and whose activities are wonderful. Hari, the Personality of Godhead, is called Kṛṣṇa because He has such transcendentally attractive features.’ ”
CC Madhya 25.160 At this time the brāhmaṇa from the province of Maharashtra mentioned Lord Caitanya’s explanation of the ātmārāma verse.
CC Madhya 25.161 The Maharashtriyan brāhmaṇa stated that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu had already explained that verse in sixty-one ways. Everyone was astonished to hear this.
CC Madhya 25.162 When all the people gathered there expressed the desire to hear again the sixty-one different meanings of the ātmārāma-śloka, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu again explained them.
CC Madhya 25.163 When everyone heard Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s explanation of the ātmārāma-śloka, everyone was astonished and struck with wonder. They concluded that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was none other than Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself.
CC Madhya 25.164 After giving those explanations again, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu arose and took His leave. All the people there offered their obeisances unto Him and chanted the mahā-mantra.
CC Madhya 25.165 All the inhabitants of Kāśī [Vārāṇasī] began chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra in ecstatic love. Sometimes they laughed, sometimes they cried, sometimes they chanted, and sometimes they danced.
CC Madhya 25.166 After this, all the Māyāvādī sannyāsīs and learned scholars at Vārāṇasī began discussing Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. In this way Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu delivered them.
CC Madhya 25.167 Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then returned to His residence with His personal associates. Thus He turned the whole city of Vārāṇasī into another Navadvīpa [Nadīyā-nagara].
CC Madhya 25.168 Among His own associates, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu laughingly said, “I came here to sell My emotional ecstatic love.
CC Madhya 25.169 “Although I came to Vārāṇasī to sell My goods, there were no customers, and it appeared necessary for Me to carry them back to My own country.
CC Madhya 25.170 “All of you were feeling unhappy that no one was purchasing My goods and that I would have to carry them away. Therefore, by your will only, I have distributed them without charging.”
CC Madhya 25.171 All the Lord’s devotees then said, “You have incarnated to deliver fallen souls. You have delivered them in the east and in the south, and now you are delivering them in the west.
CC Madhya 25.172 “Only Vārāṇasī was left because the people there were against Your missionary activities. Now You have delivered them, and we are all very happy.”
CC Madhya 25.173 After the news of these events was broadcast, everyone from the surrounding neighborhoods began to pour in to see Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
CC Madhya 25.174 Hundreds of thousands of people came to see Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. There was no counting the number. Because the Lord’s residence was very small, not everyone could see Him.
CC Madhya 25.175 When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu went to take His bath in the Ganges and to see the temple of Viśveśvara, people would line up on both sides to see the Lord.
CC Madhya 25.176 When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu passed by the people, He would raise His arms and say, “Please chant Kṛṣṇa! Please chant Hari!” All the people received Him by chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa, and they offered their respects to Him by this chanting.
CC Madhya 25.177 In this way, for five days Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu delivered the people of Vārāṇasī. Finally, on the next day, He became very eager to leave.
CC Madhya 25.178 After rising very early on the sixth day, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu started to leave, and five devotees began to follow Him.
CC Madhya 25.179 These five devotees were Tapana Miśra, Raghunātha, the Maharashtriyan brāhmaṇa, Candraśekhara and Paramānanda Kīrtanīyā.
CC Madhya 25.180 These five wanted to accompany Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu to Jagannātha Purī, but the Lord attentively bade them farewell.
CC Madhya 25.181 Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, “If you want to see Me, you may come later, but for the time being I shall go alone through the Jhārikhaṇḍa forest.”
CC Madhya 25.182 Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu advised Sanātana Gosvāmī to proceed toward Vṛndāvana, and He informed him that his two brothers had already gone there.
CC Madhya 25.183 Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu told Sanātana Gosvāmī, “All My devotees who go to Vṛndāvana are generally very poor. They each have nothing with them but a torn quilt and a small waterpot. Therefore, Sanātana, you should give them shelter and maintain them.”
CC Madhya 25.184 After saying this, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu embraced them all and began to proceed on His way, and they all fainted and fell down.
CC Madhya 25.185 After some time, all the devotees got up and returned to their homes very much grief-stricken. Sanātana Gosvāmī proceeded toward Vṛndāvana alone.
CC Madhya 25.186 When Rūpa Gosvāmī reached Mathurā, he met Subuddhi Rāya on the banks of the Yamunā, at a place called Dhruva-ghāṭa.
CC Madhya 25.187 Formerly Subuddhi Rāya had been a big landholder in Gauḍa-deśa [Bengal]. Saiyada Hussain Khān was then a servant of Subuddhi Rāya.
CC Madhya 25.188 Subuddhi Rāya put Hussain Khān in charge of digging a big lake, but once, finding fault with him, he struck him with a whip.
CC Madhya 25.189 Later Hussain Khān somehow or other was appointed Nawab by the central Muslim government. As a matter of obligation, he increased the opulences of Subuddhi Rāya.
CC Madhya 25.190 Later, when the wife of Nawab Saiyada Hussain Khān saw the whip marks on his body, she requested him to kill Subuddhi Rāya.
CC Madhya 25.191 Hussain Khān replied, “Subuddhi Rāya has maintained me very carefully. He was just like a father to me,” he said. “Now you are asking me to kill him. This is not a very good proposal.”
CC Madhya 25.192 As a last alternative, the wife suggested that the Nawab take away Subuddhi Rāya’s caste and turn him into a Muslim, but Hussain Khān replied that if he did this, Subuddhi Rāya would not live.
CC Madhya 25.193 This became a perplexing problem for him because his wife kept requesting him to kill Subuddhi Rāya. Finally the Nawab sprinkled a little water on Subuddhi Rāya’s head from a pitcher that had been used by a Muslim.
CC Madhya 25.194 Taking the Nawab’s sprinkling water upon him as an opportunity, Subuddhi Rāya left his family and business affairs and went to Vārāṇasī.
CC Madhya 25.195 When Subuddhi Rāya consulted the learned brāhmaṇas at Vārāṇasī, asking them how his conversion to Islam could be counteracted, they advised him to drink hot ghee and give up his life.
CC Madhya 25.196 When Subuddhi Rāya consulted some other brāhmaṇas, they told him that he had not committed a grievous fault and that consequently he should not drink hot ghee and give up his life. As a result, Subuddhi Rāya was doubtful about what to do.
CC Madhya 25.197 In his state of perplexity, Subuddhi Rāya met Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu when the Lord was at Vārāṇasī. Subuddhi Rāya explained his position and asked Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu what he should do.
CC Madhya 25.198 The Lord advised him, “Go to Vṛndāvana and chant the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra constantly.”
CC Madhya 25.199 Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu further advised Subuddhi Rāya: “Begin chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra, and when your chanting is almost pure, all your sinful reactions will go away. After you chant perfectly, you will get shelter at the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa.
CC Madhya 25.200 “When you are situated at the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa, no sinful reaction can touch you. This is the best solution to all sinful activity.”
CC Madhya 25.201 Thus receiving the order from Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu to go to Vṛndāvana, Subuddhi Rāya left Vārāṇasī and went through Prayāga, Ayodhyā and Naimiṣāraṇya toward Vṛndāvana.
CC Madhya 25.202 Subuddhi Rāya stayed for some time at Naimiṣāraṇya. During that time, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu went to Prayāga after visiting Vṛndāvana.
CC Madhya 25.203 After reaching Mathurā, Subuddhi Rāya received information of the Lord’s itinerary. He became very unhappy because he was not able to contact the Lord.
CC Madhya 25.204 Subuddhi Rāya would collect dry wood in the forest and take it to the city of Mathurā to sell. For each load he would receive five or six paise.
CC Madhya 25.205 Earning his livelihood by selling dry wood, Subuddhi Rāya would live on only one paisa’s worth of fried chick-peas, and he would deposit whatever other paise he had with some merchant.
CC Madhya 25.206 Subuddhi Rāya used to spend his savings to supply yogurt to Bengali Vaiṣṇavas who came to Mathurā. He also gave them cooked rice and oil massages. When he saw a poverty-stricken Vaiṣṇava, he would use his money to feed him.
CC Madhya 25.207 When Rūpa Gosvāmī arrived at Mathurā, Subuddhi Rāya, out of love and affection for him, wanted to serve him in so many ways. He personally took Rūpa Gosvāmī to see all the twelve forests of Vṛndāvana.
CC Madhya 25.208 Rūpa Gosvāmī remained in Mathurā and Vṛndāvana for one month in the association of Subuddhi Rāya. After that, he left Vṛndāvana to search for his elder brother, Sanātana Gosvāmī.
CC Madhya 25.209 When Rūpa Gosvāmī heard that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu had gone to Prayāga on the road along the banks of the Ganges, Rūpa and his brother Anupama went that way to meet the Lord.
CC Madhya 25.210 After reaching Prayāga, Sanātana Gosvāmī, following the order of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, went to Vṛndāvana along the public road.
CC Madhya 25.211 When Sanātana Gosvāmī met Subuddhi Rāya at Mathurā, Subuddhi Rāya explained everything about his younger brothers Rūpa Gosvāmī and Anupama.
CC Madhya 25.212 Since Sanātana Gosvāmī went along the public road to Vṛndāvana and Rūpa Gosvāmī and Anupama went on the road along the Ganges’ banks, it was not possible for them to meet.
CC Madhya 25.213 Subuddhi Rāya and Sanātana Gosvāmī had known each other before accepting the renounced order. Therefore Subuddhi Rāya showed much affection to Sanātana Gosvāmī, but Sanātana Gosvāmī hesitated to accept his sentiments and affections.
CC Madhya 25.214 Being very advanced in the renounced order, Sanātana Gosvāmī used to wander from forest to forest, never taking shelter of any habitation built of stone. He used to live under trees or beneath bushes both day and night.
CC Madhya 25.215 Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī collected some books about archaeological excavations in Mathurā, and wandering in the forest, he sought to renovate all those holy places.
CC Madhya 25.216 Sanātana Gosvāmī remained in Vṛndāvana, and Rūpa Gosvāmī and Anupama returned to Vārāṇasī.
CC Madhya 25.217 When Rūpa Gosvāmī arrived at Vārāṇasī, he met the Maharashtriyan brāhmaṇa, Candraśekhara and Tapana Miśra.
CC Madhya 25.218 While Rūpa Gosvāmī was staying at Vārāṇasī, he resided at the house of Candraśekhara and took prasādam at the house of Tapana Miśra. In this way he heard of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s instructions to Sanātana Gosvāmī in Vārāṇasī.
CC Madhya 25.219 While staying at Vārāṇasī, Rūpa Gosvāmī heard of all Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s activities. When he heard of His deliverance of the Māyāvādī sannyāsīs, he became very happy.
CC Madhya 25.220 When Rūpa Gosvāmī saw that all the people of Vārāṇasī respected Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, he became very happy. He even heard stories from the general populace.
CC Madhya 25.221 After staying in Vārāṇasī for about ten days, Rūpa Gosvāmī returned to Bengal. In this way I have described the activities of Rūpa and Sanātana.
CC Madhya 25.222 As Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was returning to Jagannātha Purī, He passed through the solitary forest, and He received great pleasure in doing so.
CC Madhya 25.223 Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu happily returned to Jagannātha Purī in the company of His servant, Balabhadra Bhaṭṭācārya. As previously, the Lord performed many pleasing pastimes with the forest animals.
CC Madhya 25.224 When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu arrived at a place known as Āṭhāranālā, near Jagannātha Purī, He sent Balabhadra Bhaṭṭācārya to call for His devotees.
CC Madhya 25.225 Hearing news of the Lord’s arrival from Balabhadra Bhaṭṭācārya, hordes of devotees became so happy that they seemed to be getting their lives back. It was as though their consciousness had returned to their bodies. Their senses also became agitated.
CC Madhya 25.226 Being overwhelmed with great pleasure, all the devotees hastily went to see the Lord. They met Him on the banks of the celebrated lake called Narendra-sarovara.
CC Madhya 25.227 When Paramānanda Purī and Brahmānanda Bhāratī met Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, the Lord offered them His respectful obeisances due to their being Godbrothers of His spiritual master. They both then embraced Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu in love and affection.
CC Madhya 25.228 Devotees like Svarūpa Dāmodara, Gadādhara Paṇḍita, Jagadānanda, Kāśīśvara, Govinda and Vakreśvara all came to meet the Lord.
CC Madhya 25.229 Kāśī Miśra, Pradyumna Miśra, Dāmodara Paṇḍita, Haridāsa Ṭhākura and Śaṅkara Paṇḍita also came there to meet the Lord.
CC Madhya 25.230 All the other devotees also came and fell down at the Lord’s lotus feet. In return, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu embraced them all with great ecstatic love.
CC Madhya 25.231 Thus they all merged in the ocean of transcendental bliss. Then the Lord and all His devotees proceeded toward the temple of Jagannātha to see the Deity.
CC Madhya 25.232 As soon as Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu saw Lord Jagannātha in the temple, He was immediately overwhelmed with love and affection. He chanted and danced with His devotees for a long time.
CC Madhya 25.233 The priests immediately brought them flower garlands and prasādam. The temple’s watchman, who was named Tulasī, also came and offered his obeisances to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
CC Madhya 25.234 When the news spread that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu had arrived at Jagannātha Purī, devotees like Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya, Rāmānanda Rāya and Vāṇīnātha Rāya all came to meet Him.
CC Madhya 25.235 The Lord and all His devotees then went to the residence of Kāśī Miśra. Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya and Paṇḍita Gosāñi also invited the Lord to dine at their homes.
CC Madhya 25.236 Accepting their invitation, the Lord asked them to bring all the prasādam there so that He could eat it with His devotees.
CC Madhya 25.237 Upon receiving Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s order, Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya and Paṇḍita Gosāñi brought sufficient prasādam from the temple of Jagannātha. The Lord then dined with everyone at His own place.
CC Madhya 25.238 Thus I have described how Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu returned to Jagannātha Purī from Vṛndāvana.
CC Madhya 25.239 Whoever hears Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s pastimes with faith and love very soon attains shelter at the Lord’s lotus feet.
CC Madhya 25.240 I have thus given a summary description of the madhya-līlā, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s travels to and from Jagannātha Purī. Indeed, the Lord traveled to and fro continuously for six years.
CC Madhya 25.241 After taking sannyāsa at the age of twenty-four, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu lived another twenty-four years. For six of these years, He traveled extensively throughout India, sometimes going to Jagannātha Purī and sometimes leaving. After traveling for six years, the Lord fixed His residence at Jagannātha Purī and stayed there for the eighteen remaining years of His life. During these eighteen years He mainly chanted Hare Kṛṣṇa with His devotees.
CC Madhya 25.242 I shall now review the chapters of the Madhya-līlā chronologically so that one can relish the transcendental features of these topics.
CC Madhya 25.243 In the first chapter I have given a synopsis of the last pastimes [antya-līlā]. Within this chapter is a vivid description of some of the pastimes of the Lord that took place toward the end of His life.
CC Madhya 25.244 In the second chapter I have described Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s talking like a crazy man. Within this chapter it is indicated how Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu manifested His different emotional moods.
CC Madhya 25.245 In the third chapter I have described the Lord’s acceptance of the renounced order and how He enjoyed His pastimes at the house of Advaita Ācārya.
CC Madhya 25.246 In the fourth chapter I have described Mādhavendra Purī’s installation of the Gopāla Deity as well as Gopīnātha’s stealing a pot of condensed milk at Remuṇā.
CC Madhya 25.247 In the fifth chapter I have narrated the story of Sākṣi-gopāla. Lord Nityānanda Prabhu narrated this while Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu listened.
CC Madhya 25.248 In the sixth chapter I have told how Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya was delivered, and in the seventh chapter I have described the Lord’s tour of different holy places and His deliverance of Vāsudeva.
CC Madhya 25.249 In the eighth chapter I have recorded the Lord’s elaborate discussion with Rāmānanda Rāya. The Lord personally listened as Rāmānanda gave the conclusive essence of all Vedic literatures.
CC Madhya 25.250 In the ninth chapter I have described the Lord’s tour of South India and the different places of pilgrimage. In the tenth chapter I have described His meeting with all His devotees.
CC Madhya 25.251 In the eleventh chapter I have described the great chanting of the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra that surrounded the Lord. In the twelfth chapter I have given a narration of the cleansing and washing of the Guṇḍicā temple.
CC Madhya 25.252 In the thirteenth chapter I have described Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s dancing before the chariot of Jagannātha. In the fourteenth chapter, there is an account of the Herā-pañcamī function.
CC Madhya 25.253 Also in the fourteenth chapter is an account of how the emotional ecstasy of the gopīs was described by Svarūpa Dāmodara and tasted by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
CC Madhya 25.254 In the fifteenth chapter I have described how Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu highly praised the qualities of His devotees and accepted lunch at the house of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya. At that time, He delivered Amogha.
CC Madhya 25.255 In the sixteenth chapter I have described how Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu departed for Vṛndāvana and journeyed through Bengal. He later returned to Jagannātha Purī from Kānāi Nāṭaśālā.
CC Madhya 25.256 In the seventeenth chapter I have described the Lord’s journey through the great forest of Jhārikhaṇḍa and His arrival at Mathurā. In the eighteenth chapter there is a description of His tour of the forest of Vṛndāvana.
CC Madhya 25.257 In the nineteenth chapter I have described how the Lord returned to Prayāga from Mathurā and empowered Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī to spread devotional service.
CC Madhya 25.258 In the twentieth chapter the Lord’s meeting with Sanātana Gosvāmī is described. The Lord described the personal features of the Supreme Personality of Godhead in depth.
CC Madhya 25.259 In the twenty-first chapter there is a description of Kṛṣṇa’s beauty and opulence, and in the twenty-second chapter there is a description of the twofold discharge of devotional service.
CC Madhya 25.260 In the twenty-third chapter there is a description of the mellows of transcendental loving service, and in the twenty-fourth chapter I have described how the Lord analyzed the ātmārāma verse.
CC Madhya 25.261 In the twenty-fifth chapter there is a description of how the residents of Vārāṇasī were converted to Vaiṣṇavism and how the Lord returned to Nīlācala [Jagannātha Purī] from Vārāṇasī.
CC Madhya 25.262 I have thus summarized these pastimes in the twenty-fifth chapter. Hearing this summary, one can understand the whole purport of this scripture.
CC Madhya 25.263 I have now summarized the entire subject matter of the Madhya-līlā. These pastimes cannot be described elaborately even in millions of books.
CC Madhya 25.264 To deliver all fallen souls, the Lord traveled from country to country. He personally tasted the transcendental pleasure of devotional service, and He simultaneously spread the cult of devotion everywhere.
CC Madhya 25.265 Kṛṣṇa consciousness means understanding the truth of Kṛṣṇa, the truth of devotional service, the truth of love of Godhead, the truth of emotional ecstasy, the truth of transcendental mellows and the truth of the pastimes of the Lord.
CC Madhya 25.266 Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu has personally preached the transcendental truths and mellows of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam and the Supreme Personality of Godhead are identical, for Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is the sound incarnation of Śrī Kṛṣṇa.
CC Madhya 25.267 Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu broadcast the purport of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. He sometimes spoke for the benefit of His devotees and sometimes empowered one of His devotees to speak while He listened.
CC Madhya 25.268 All sane men within these three worlds certainly accept the conclusion that no one is more merciful and magnanimous than Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and that no one is as kind to His devotees.
CC Madhya 25.269 All devotees should hear about Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s pastimes with faith and love. By the grace of the Lord, one can thus attain shelter at His lotus feet.
CC Madhya 25.270 By understanding the pastimes of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, one can understand the truth about Kṛṣṇa. By understanding Kṛṣṇa, one can understand the limit of all knowledge described in various revealed scriptures.
CC Madhya 25.271 The pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa are the essence of all nectar, and that nectar is flowing in hundreds of rivers in all directions. The pastimes of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu are an eternal reservoir, and one is advised to let his mind swim like a swan on this transcendental lake.
CC Madhya 25.272 With all humility, I submit myself to the lotus feet of all of you devotees, taking the dust from your feet as my bodily ornaments. Now, my dear devotees, please hear one thing more from me.
CC Madhya 25.273 Devotional service to Kṛṣṇa is exactly like a pleasing, jubilant forest of lotus flowers wherein there is ample honey. I request everyone to taste this honey. If all the mental speculators bring the bees of their minds into this forest of lotus flowers and jubilantly enjoy ecstatic love of Kṛṣṇa day and night, their mental speculation will be completely transcendentally satisfied.
CC Madhya 25.274 The devotees who have a relationship with Kṛṣṇa are like the swans and cakravāka birds who play in that forest of lotus flowers. The buds of those lotus flowers are the pastimes of Kṛṣṇa, and they are edibles for the swanlike devotees. Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa is always engaged in His transcendental pastimes; therefore the devotees, following in the footsteps of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, can always eat those lotus buds, for they are the pastimes of the Lord.
CC Madhya 25.275 All the devotees of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu should go to that lake and, remaining always under the shelter of the lotus feet of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, become swans and cakravāka birds in those celestial waters. They should go on rendering service to Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa and enjoy life perpetually. In this way all miseries will be diminished, the devotees will attain great happiness, and there will be jubilant love of God.
CC Madhya 25.276 The devotees who have taken shelter of the lotus feet of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu take the responsibility for distributing nectarean devotional service all over the world. They are like clouds pouring water on the ground that nourishes the fruit of love of Godhead in this world. The devotees eat that fruit to their hearts’ content, and whatever remnants they leave are eaten by the general populace. Thus they live happily.
CC Madhya 25.277 The pastimes of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu are full of nectar, and the pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa are like camphor. When one mixes these, they taste very sweet. By the mercy of the pure devotees, whoever tastes them can understand the depths of that sweetness.
CC Madhya 25.278 Men become strong and stout by eating sufficient grains, but the devotee who simply eats ordinary grains but does not taste the transcendental pastimes of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Kṛṣṇa gradually becomes weak and falls down from the transcendental position. However, if one drinks but a drop of the nectar of Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes, his body and mind begin to bloom, and he begins to laugh, sing and dance.
CC Madhya 25.279 The readers should relish this wonderful nectar because nothing compares to it. Keeping their faith firmly fixed within their minds, they should be careful not to fall into the pit of false arguments or the whirlpools of unfortunate situations. If one falls into such positions, he is finished.
CC Madhya 25.280 In conclusion, I submit to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, Nityānanda Prabhu, Advaita Prabhu and all the other devotees and readers that I accept your lotus feet as the helmet on my head. In this way, all my purposes will be served.
CC Madhya 25.281 Taking the feet of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī, Śrī Sanātana Gosvāmī, Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī, Raghunātha Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī and Jīva Gosvāmī on my head, I always desire their mercy. Thus I, Kṛṣṇadāsa, humbly try to describe the nectar of the pastimes of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, which are mixed with the pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa.
CC Madhya 25.282 For the satisfaction of Śrī Madana-gopāla and Govindadeva, we pray that this book, Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, may be offered to Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
CC Madhya 25.283 The Caitanya-caritāmṛta pastimes of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu constitute a very secret literature. It is the life and soul of all devotees. Those who are not fit to relish this literature, who are envious like hogs and pigs, will certainly not adore it. However, this will not harm my attempt. These pastimes of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu will certainly please all saintly people who have clear hearts. They will certainly enjoy it. We wish that this will enhance their enjoyment more and more.