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Antya 1: Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī’s Second Meeting with the Lord

A summary of the first chapter is given by Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura in his Amṛta-pravāha-bhāṣya as follows. When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu returned to Jagannātha Purī from Vṛndāvana, all His devotees from other parts of India, upon receiving the auspicious news, came to Puruṣottama-kṣetra, or Jagannātha Purī. Śivānanda Sena took a dog with him and even paid fees for it to cross the river. One night, however, the dog could not get any food and therefore went directly to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu at Jagannātha Purī. The next day, when Śivānanda and his party reached Jagannātha Purī, Śivānanda saw the dog eating some coconut pulp offered to it by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. After this incident, the dog was liberated and went back home, back to Godhead.

Meanwhile, Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī reached Bengal, after returning from Vṛndāvana. Although he could not follow the Bengali devotees, after some time he also came to Jagannātha Purī, where he stayed with Haridāsa Ṭhākura. Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī composed an important verse beginning with the words priyaḥ so ’yam, and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu relished it very much. One day Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, Rāmānanda Rāya, Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya and others went to the place of Haridāsa Ṭhākura and heard some of the verses Rūpa Gosvāmī had composed for his books Lalita-mādhava and Vidagdha-mādhava. After examining the manuscripts of these two books, Rāmānanda Rāya approved and appreciated them very much. After the period of Cāturmāsya, all the devotees who had come from Bengal returned to their homes. Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī, however, remained at Jagannātha Purī for some time.

CC Antya 1.1 I offer my respectful obeisances to Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Mahāprabhu, by whose mercy even a lame man can cross over a mountain and a dumb man recite Vedic literature.
CC Antya 1.2 My path is very difficult. I am blind, and my feet are slipping again and again. Therefore, may the saints help me by granting me the stick of their mercy as my support.
CC Antya 1.3-4 I pray to the lotus feet of the six Gosvāmīs — Śrī Rūpa, Sanātana, Bhaṭṭa Raghunātha, Śrī Jīva, Gopāla Bhaṭṭa and Dāsa Raghunātha — so that all impediments to my writing this literature will be annihilated and my real desire will be fulfilled.
CC Antya 1.5 Glory to the all-merciful Rādhā and Madana-mohana! I am lame and ill advised, yet They are my directors, and Their lotus feet are everything to me.
CC Antya 1.6 In a temple of jewels in Vṛndāvana, underneath a desire tree, Śrī Śrī Rādhā-Govinda, served by Their most confidential associates, sit upon an effulgent throne. I offer my humble obeisances unto Them.
CC Antya 1.7 Śrī Śrīla Gopīnātha, who originated the transcendental mellow of the rāsa dance, stands on the shore at Vaṁśīvaṭa and attracts the attention of the cowherd damsels with the sound of His celebrated flute. May they all confer upon us their benediction.
CC Antya 1.8 All glories to Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu! All glories to Lord Nityānanda! All glories to Advaita Ācārya! And all glories to all the devotees of Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu!
CC Antya 1.9 I have briefly described the pastimes of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu known as the madhya-līlā. Now I shall attempt to describe something about His last pastimes, which are known as the antya-līlā.
CC Antya 1.10 I have briefly described the antya-līlā within the description of the madhya-līlā.
CC Antya 1.11 I am now almost an invalid because of old age, and I know that at any moment I may die. Therefore I have already described some portions of the antya-līlā.
CC Antya 1.12 In accordance with the synopsis previously written, I shall describe in detail whatever I have not mentioned.
CC Antya 1.13 When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu returned to Jagannātha Purī from Vṛndāvana, Svarūpa Dāmodara Gosāñi immediately sent news of the Lord’s arrival to the devotees in Bengal.
CC Antya 1.14 Upon hearing this news, mother Śacī and all the other devotees of Navadvīpa were very joyful, and they all departed together for Nīlācala [Jagannātha Purī].
CC Antya 1.15 Thus all the devotees of Kulīna-grāma and Śrī Khaṇḍa, as well as Advaita Ācārya, came together to meet Śivānanda Sena.
CC Antya 1.16 Śivānanda Sena arranged for the journey. He maintained everyone and provided residential quarters.
CC Antya 1.17 While going to Jagannātha Purī, Śivānanda Sena allowed a dog to go with him. He supplied it food to eat and maintained it.
CC Antya 1.18 One day, when they needed to cross a river, an Orissan boatman would not allow the dog to get in the boat.
CC Antya 1.19 Śivānanda Sena, unhappy that the dog had to stay behind, paid the boatman ten paṇa of conchshells to take the dog across the river.
CC Antya 1.20 One day while Śivānanda was detained by a tollman, his servant forgot to give the dog its cooked rice.
CC Antya 1.21 At night, when Śivānanda Sena returned and was taking his meal, he inquired from the servant whether the dog had gotten its meals.
CC Antya 1.22 When he learned that the dog had not been supplied food in his absence, he was very unhappy. He then immediately sent ten men to find the dog.
CC Antya 1.23 When the men returned without success, Śivānanda Sena became very unhappy and fasted for the night.
CC Antya 1.24 In the morning they looked for the dog, but it could not be found anywhere. All the Vaiṣṇavas were astonished.
CC Antya 1.25 Thus in great anxiety they all walked to Jagannātha Purī, where Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu met them as usual.
CC Antya 1.26 Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu went with them to see the Lord in the temple, and on that day He also took lunch in the company of all those devotees.
CC Antya 1.27 As previously, the Lord provided them all with residential quarters. And the next morning all the devotees came to see the Lord.
CC Antya 1.28 When all the devotees came to the place of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, they saw the same dog sitting a little apart from the Lord.
CC Antya 1.29 Furthermore, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was throwing remnants of green coconut pulp to the dog. Smiling in His own way, He was saying to the dog, “Chant the holy names ‘Rāma,’ ‘Kṛṣṇa’ and ‘Hari.’ ”
CC Antya 1.30 Seeing the dog eating the green coconut pulp and chanting “Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa” again and again, all the devotees present were very surprised.
CC Antya 1.31 When he saw the dog sitting in that way and chanting the name of Kṛṣṇa, Śivānanda, because of his natural humility, immediately offered his obeisances to the dog just to counteract his offenses to it.
CC Antya 1.32 The next day, no one saw that dog, for it had obtained its spiritual body and departed for Vaikuṇṭha, the spiritual kingdom.
CC Antya 1.33 Such are the transcendental pastimes of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, the son of mother Śacī. He even delivered a dog simply by inducing it to chant the mahā-mantra, Hare Kṛṣṇa.
CC Antya 1.34 Meanwhile, following the order of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī returned to Vṛndāvana. He desired to write dramas concerning the pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa.
CC Antya 1.35 In Vṛndāvana, Rūpa Gosvāmī began to write a drama. In particular, he composed the introductory verses to invoke good fortune.
CC Antya 1.36 On his way to Gauḍa-deśa, Rūpa Gosvāmī had been thinking of how to write the action of the drama. Thus he had made some notes and begun to write.
CC Antya 1.37 In this way the two brothers Rūpa and Anupama reached Bengal, but when they arrived there Anupama died.
CC Antya 1.38 Rūpa Gosvāmī then departed to see Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, for he was very eager to see Him.
CC Antya 1.39 There was some delay because of the death of Anupama, and therefore when Rūpa Gosvāmī went to Bengal to see the devotees there, he could not get in touch with them because they had already left.
CC Antya 1.40 In the province of Orissa there is a place known as Satyabhāmā-pura. Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī rested for a night in that village on his way to Jagannātha Purī.
CC Antya 1.41 While resting in Satyabhāmā-pura, he dreamed that a celestially beautiful woman came before him and very mercifully gave him the following order.
CC Antya 1.42 “Write a separate drama about me,” she said. “By my mercy it will be extraordinarily beautiful.”
CC Antya 1.43 After having that dream, Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī considered, “It is the order of Satyabhāmā that I write a separate drama for her.
CC Antya 1.44 “I have brought together in one work all the pastimes performed by Lord Kṛṣṇa in Vṛndāvana and in Dvārakā. Now I shall have to divide them into two dramas.”
CC Antya 1.45 Thus absorbed in thought, he quickly reached Jagannātha Purī. When he arrived, he approached the hut of Haridāsa Ṭhākura.
CC Antya 1.46 Out of affectionate love and mercy, Haridāsa Ṭhākura told Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī, “Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu has already informed me that you would come here.”
CC Antya 1.47 After seeing the upala-bhoga ceremony at the Jagannātha temple, Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu would regularly come to see Haridāsa every day. Thus He suddenly arrived there.
CC Antya 1.48 When the Lord arrived, Rūpa Gosvāmī immediately offered his obeisances. Haridāsa informed the Lord, “This is Rūpa Gosvāmī offering You obeisances,” and the Lord embraced him.
CC Antya 1.49 Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then sat down with Haridāsa and Rūpa Gosvāmī. They inquired from one another about auspicious news and then continued to talk together for some time.
CC Antya 1.50 When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu inquired about Sanātana Gosvāmī, Rūpa Gosvāmī replied, “I did not meet him.
CC Antya 1.51 “I came by the path on the bank of the Ganges, whereas Sanātana Gosvāmī came by the public road. Therefore we did not meet.
CC Antya 1.52 “In Prayāga I heard that he had already gone to Vṛndāvana.” Rūpa Gosvāmī next informed the Lord about the death of Anupama.
CC Antya 1.53 After allotting residential quarters there to Rūpa Gosvāmī, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu left. Then all of the Lord’s personal associates met Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī.
CC Antya 1.54 On the next day, Caitanya Mahāprabhu again met Rūpa Gosvāmī, and with great mercy the Lord introduced him to all the devotees.
CC Antya 1.55 Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī offered his respectful obeisances unto the lotus feet of them all, and all the devotees, by their mercy, embraced him.
CC Antya 1.56 Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu told Advaita Ācārya and Nityānanda Prabhu, “You should both show Your mercy wholeheartedly to Rūpa Gosvāmī.
CC Antya 1.57 “May Rūpa Gosvāmī, by Your mercy, become so powerful that he will be able to describe the transcendental mellows of devotional service.”
CC Antya 1.58 Thus Rūpa Gosvāmī became the object of love and affection for all the devotees of the Lord, including those who came from Bengal and those who resided in Orissa.
CC Antya 1.59 Every day Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu would go to see Rūpa Gosvāmī, and whatever prasādam He received from the temple He would deliver to Rūpa Gosvāmī and Haridāsa Ṭhākura.
CC Antya 1.60 He would talk for some time with them both and then leave to perform His noontime duties.
CC Antya 1.61 In this way Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s dealings with them continued every day. Thus receiving the transcendental favor of the Lord, Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī felt unlimited pleasure.
CC Antya 1.62 After Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, taking all His devotees with Him, performed the Guṇḍicā-mārjana [washing and cleansing of the Guṇḍicā temple], He went to the garden known as Āiṭoṭā and accepted prasādam at a picnic within the garden.
CC Antya 1.63 When Haridāsa Ṭhākura and Rūpa Gosvāmī saw that all the devotees were accepting prasādam and chanting the holy name of Hari, they both were greatly pleased.
CC Antya 1.64 When they received the remnants of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s prasādam through Govinda, they respected it, and then they both began to dance in ecstasy.
CC Antya 1.65 On the next day, when Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu went to see Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī, the omniscient Lord spoke as follows.
CC Antya 1.66 “Do not try to take Kṛṣṇa out of Vṛndāvana, for He does not go anywhere else at any time.
CC Antya 1.67 “ ‘The Kṛṣṇa known as Yadu-kumāra is Vāsudeva Kṛṣṇa. He is different from the Kṛṣṇa who is the son of Nanda Mahārāja. Yadu-kumāra Kṛṣṇa manifests His pastimes in the cities of Mathurā and Dvārakā, but Kṛṣṇa the son of Nanda Mahārāja never at any time leaves Vṛndāvana.’ ”
CC Antya 1.68 After saying this, Caitanya Mahāprabhu went to perform His noontime duties, leaving Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī somewhat surprised.
CC Antya 1.69 “Satyabhāmā ordered me to write two different dramas,” Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī thought. “Now I understand that this order has been confirmed by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
CC Antya 1.70 “Formerly I wrote the two dramas as one composition. Now I shall divide it and describe the incidents in two separate works.
CC Antya 1.71 “I shall write two separate invocations of good fortune and two different introductions. Let me think deeply about the matter and then describe two different sets of incidents.”
CC Antya 1.72 During the Ratha-yātrā ceremony Rūpa Gosvāmī saw Lord Jagannātha. He also saw Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu dancing and chanting in front of the ratha.
CC Antya 1.73 When Rūpa Gosvāmī heard a verse uttered by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu during the ceremony, he immediately composed another verse dealing with the same subject.
CC Antya 1.74 I have already described all these incidents, but I still wish to add briefly something more.
CC Antya 1.75 Generally Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu recited a verse while dancing and chanting before the ratha, but no one knew why He was reciting that particular verse.
CC Antya 1.76 Only Svarūpa Dāmodara Gosvāmī knew the purpose for which the Lord recited that verse. According to the Lord’s attitude, he used to quote other verses to enable the Lord to relish mellows.
CC Antya 1.77 Rūpa Gosvāmī, however, could understand the intention of the Lord, and thus he composed another verse that appealed to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
CC Antya 1.78 “That very personality who stole my heart during my youth is now again my master. These are the same moonlit nights of the month of Caitra. The same fragrance of mālatī flowers is there, and the same sweet breezes are blowing from the kadamba forest. In our intimate relationship, I am also the same lover, yet still my mind is not happy here. I am eager to go back to that place on the bank of the Revā under the Vetasī tree. That is my desire.”
CC Antya 1.79 “My dear friend, now I have met My very old and dear friend Kṛṣṇa on this field of Kurukṣetra. I am the same Rādhārāṇī, and now We are meeting together. It is very pleasant, but I would still like to go to the bank of the Yamunā beneath the trees of the forest there. I wish to hear the vibration of His sweet flute playing the fifth note within that forest of Vṛndāvana.”
CC Antya 1.80 After writing this verse on a palm leaf, Rūpa Gosvāmī put it somewhere in his thatched roof and went to bathe in the sea.
CC Antya 1.81 At that time, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu went there to meet him, and when He saw the leaf pushed into the roof and saw the verse, He began to read it.
CC Antya 1.82 After reading the verse, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was overwhelmed by ecstatic love. At that very time, Rūpa Gosvāmī returned, having finished bathing in the sea.
CC Antya 1.83 Seeing the Lord, Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī fell flat in the courtyard to offer obeisances. The Lord slapped him mildly in love and spoke as follows.
CC Antya 1.84 “My heart is very confidential. How did you know My mind in this way?” After saying this, He firmly embraced Rūpa Gosvāmī.
CC Antya 1.85 Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu took that verse and showed it to Svarūpa Dāmodara for him to examine. Then the Lord questioned him.
CC Antya 1.86 “How could Rūpa Gosvāmī have understood My heart?” the Lord asked.
CC Antya 1.87 “No one could otherwise understand this meaning. I can therefore guess that previously You bestowed upon him Your causeless mercy.”
CC Antya 1.88 Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu replied, “Rūpa Gosvāmī met Me at Prayāga. Knowing him to be a suitable person, I naturally bestowed My mercy upon him.
CC Antya 1.89 “I thereupon also bestowed upon him My transcendental potency. Now you also should give him instructions. In particular, instruct him in transcendental mellows.”
CC Antya 1.90 Svarūpa Dāmodara said, “As soon as I saw the unique composition of this verse, I could immediately understand that You had bestowed upon him Your special mercy.
CC Antya 1.91 “ ‘By seeing a result, one can understand the cause of that result.’
CC Antya 1.92 “ ‘The river Ganges flowing in the heavenly planets is full of golden lotus flowers, and we, the residents of those planets, eat the stems of the flowers. Thus we are very beautiful, more so than the inhabitants of any other planet. This is due to the law of cause and effect, for if one eats food in the mode of goodness, the mode of goodness increases the beauty of his body.’ ”
CC Antya 1.93 After the four months of Cāturmāsya [Śrāvaṇa, Bhādra, Āśvina and Kārttika], all the Vaiṣṇavas of Bengal returned to their homes, but Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī remained in Jagannātha Purī under the shelter of the lotus feet of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
CC Antya 1.94 One day while Rūpa Gosvāmī was writing his book, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu suddenly appeared.
CC Antya 1.95 As soon as Haridāsa Ṭhākura and Rūpa Gosvāmī saw the Lord coming, they both stood up and then fell down to offer Him their respectful obeisances. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu embraced them both and then sat down.
CC Antya 1.96 The Lord inquired, “What kind of book are you writing?” He held up a palm leaf that was a page of the manuscript, and when He saw the fine handwriting, His mind was very pleased.
CC Antya 1.97 Thus being pleased, the Lord praised the writing by saying, “The handwriting of Rūpa Gosvāmī is just like rows of pearls.”
CC Antya 1.98 While reading the manuscript, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu saw a verse on that page, and as soon as He read it He was overwhelmed by ecstatic love.
CC Antya 1.99 “I do not know how much nectar the two syllables ‘Kṛṣ-ṇa’ have produced. When the holy name of Kṛṣṇa is chanted, it appears to dance within the mouth. We then desire many, many mouths. When that name enters the holes of the ears, we desire many millions of ears. And when the holy name dances in the courtyard of the heart, it conquers the activities of the mind, and therefore all the senses become inert.”
CC Antya 1.100 When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu chanted this verse, Haridāsa Ṭhākura, upon hearing the vibration, became jubilant and began to dance while praising its meaning.
CC Antya 1.101 One has to learn about the beauty and transcendental position of the holy name of the Lord by hearing the revealed scriptures from the mouths of devotees. Nowhere else can we hear of the sweetness of the Lord’s holy name.
CC Antya 1.102 Thus Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu embraced Haridāsa and Rūpa Gosvāmī and left for the seaside to perform His noontime duties.
CC Antya 1.103-104 On the next day, after visiting the temple of Jagannātha as usual, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu met Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya, Rāmānanda Rāya and Svarūpa Dāmodara. They all went together to Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī, and on the way the Lord greatly praised his qualities.
CC Antya 1.105 When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu recited the two important verses, He felt great pleasure; thus, as if He had five mouths, He began to praise His devotee.
CC Antya 1.106 Just to examine Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya and Rāmānanda Rāya, the Lord began to praise the transcendental qualities of Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī before them.
CC Antya 1.107 Characteristically, the Supreme Personality of Godhead does not take seriously an offense committed by a pure devotee. The Lord accepts whatever small service a devotee renders as being such a great service that He is prepared to give even Himself, what to speak of other benedictions.
CC Antya 1.108 “The Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is known as Puruṣottama, the greatest of all persons, has a pure mind. He is so gentle that even if His servant is implicated in a great offense, He does not take it very seriously. Indeed, if His servant renders some small service, the Lord accepts it as being very great. Even if an envious person blasphemes the Lord, the Lord never manifests anger against him. Such are His great qualities.”
CC Antya 1.109 When Haridāsa Ṭhākura and Rūpa Gosvāmī saw that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu had come with His intimate devotees, they both immediately fell down like logs and offered prayers to their lotus feet.
CC Antya 1.110 Thus Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and His personal devotees met Rūpa Gosvāmī and Haridāsa Ṭhākura. The Lord then sat down in an elevated place with His devotees.
CC Antya 1.111 Rūpa Gosvāmī and Haridāsa Ṭhākura sat at the foot of the elevated place where Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was sitting. Although everyone asked them to sit on the same level as the Lord and His associates, they did not do so.
CC Antya 1.112 When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu ordered Rūpa Gosvāmī to read the verse they had previously heard, Rūpa Gosvāmī, because of great shyness, did not read it but instead remained silent.
CC Antya 1.113 Then Svarūpa Dāmodara Gosvāmī recited the verse, and when all the devotees heard it, their minds were struck with wonder.
CC Antya 1.114 “ ‘My dear friend, now I have met My very old and dear friend Kṛṣṇa on this field of Kurukṣetra. I am the same Rādhārāṇī, and now We are meeting together. It is very pleasant, but I would still like to go to the bank of the Yamunā beneath the trees of the forest there. I wish to hear the vibration of His sweet flute playing the fifth note within that forest of Vṛndāvana.’ ”
CC Antya 1.115 After hearing this verse, Rāmānanda Rāya and Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya said to Caitanya Mahāprabhu, “Without Your special mercy, how could this Rūpa Gosvāmī have understood Your mind?”
CC Antya 1.116 Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya said that previously Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu had empowered his heart so that he could express elevated and conclusive statements to which even Lord Brahmā has no access.
CC Antya 1.117 “Had You not previously bestowed Your mercy on him,” they said, “it would not have been possible for him to express Your internal feelings.”
CC Antya 1.118 Then Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, “My dear Rūpa, please recite that verse from your drama which, upon being heard, makes all people’s unhappiness and lamentation go away.”
CC Antya 1.119 When the Lord persisted in asking this again and again, Rūpa Gosvāmī recited that verse [as follows].
CC Antya 1.120 “ ‘I do not know how much nectar the two syllables “Kṛṣ-ṇa” have produced. When the holy name of Kṛṣṇa is chanted, it appears to dance within the mouth. We then desire many, many mouths. When that name enters the holes of the ears, we desire many millions of ears. And when the holy name dances in the courtyard of the heart, it conquers the activities of the mind, and therefore all the senses become inert.’ ”
CC Antya 1.121 When all the devotees of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, especially Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya, heard this verse, they were all filled with transcendental bliss and were struck with wonder.
CC Antya 1.122 Everyone admitted that although they had heard many statements glorifying the holy name of the Lord, they had never heard such sweet descriptions as those of Rūpa Gosvāmī.
CC Antya 1.123 Rāmānanda Rāya inquired, “What kind of drama are you writing? We can understand that it is a mine of conclusive statements.”
CC Antya 1.124 Svarūpa Dāmodara replied for Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī: “He wanted to compose a drama about the pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa. He planned to describe in one book both the pastimes of Vṛndāvana and those of Dvārakā and Mathurā.
CC Antya 1.125 “He began it in that way, but now, following the order of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, he has divided it in two and is writing two plays, one concerning the pastimes of Mathurā and Dvārakā and the other concerning the pastimes of Vṛndāvana.
CC Antya 1.126 “The two plays are called Vidagdha-mādhava and Lalita-mādhava. Both of them wonderfully describe ecstatic emotional love of God.”
CC Antya 1.127 Rāmānanda Rāya said, “Please recite the introductory verse of the Vidagdha-mādhava so that I can hear and examine it.” Thus Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī, being ordered by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, recited the verse (1.1).
CC Antya 1.128 “ ‘May the pastimes of Śrī Kṛṣṇa reduce the miseries existing in the material world and nullify all unwanted desires. The pastimes of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are like śikhariṇī, a blend of yogurt and sugar candy. They overpower the pride of even the nectar produced on the moon, for they distribute the sweet fragrance of the concentrated loving affairs of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and the gopīs.’ ”
CC Antya 1.129 Rāmānanda Rāya said, “Now please recite the description of the glories of your worshipable Deity.” Rūpa Gosvāmī, however, hesitated due to embarrassment because Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was present.
CC Antya 1.130 The Lord, however, encouraged Rūpa Gosvāmī, saying, “Why are you embarrassed? You should recite it so the devotees can hear the good fruit of your writing.”
CC Antya 1.131 When Rūpa Gosvāmī thus recited his verse, Caitanya Mahāprabhu disapproved of it because it described His personal glories. He expressed the opinion that it was an exaggerated explanation.
CC Antya 1.132 “ ‘May the Supreme Lord who is known as the son of Śrīmatī Śacīdevī be transcendentally situated in the innermost core of your heart. Resplendent with the radiance of molten gold, He has descended in the Age of Kali by His causeless mercy to bestow what no incarnation has ever offered before: the most elevated mellow of devotional service, the mellow of conjugal love.’ ”
CC Antya 1.133 All the devotees present so greatly appreciated this verse that they expressed their gratitude to Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī for his transcendental recitation.
CC Antya 1.134 Rāmānanda Rāya inquired, “How have you introduced the assembly of the players?”
CC Antya 1.135 “ ‘When the entrance of the actors is set in motion by the arrival of a suitable time, the entrance is called pravartaka.’
CC Antya 1.136 “ ‘Springtime had arrived, and the full moon of that season inspired the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is complete in everything, with new attraction to meet the beautiful Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī at night to increase the beauty of Their pastimes.’ ”
CC Antya 1.137 Rāmānanda Rāya said, “Please recite the prarocanā portion so that I may hear and examine it.”
CC Antya 1.138 “ ‘The devotees now present are constantly thinking of the Supreme Lord and are therefore highly advanced. This work named Vidagdha-mādhava depicts the characteristic pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa with decorations of poetic ornaments. And the inner grounds of the forest of Vṛndāvana provide a suitable platform for the dancing of Kṛṣṇa with the gopīs. Therefore I think that the pious activities of persons like us, who have tried to advance in devotional service, have now attained maturity.’
CC Antya 1.139 “ ‘O learned devotees, I am by nature ignorant and low, yet even though it is from me that the Vidagdha-mādhava has come, it is filled with descriptions of the transcendental attributes of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore, will not such a literature bring about the attainment of the highest goal of life? Although its wood may be ignited by a low-class man, fire can nevertheless purify gold. Similarly, although I am very low by nature, this book may help cleanse the dirt from within the hearts of the golden devotees.’ ”
CC Antya 1.140 Then Rāmānanda Rāya inquired from Rūpa Gosvāmī about the causes of the loving affairs between Kṛṣṇa and the gopīs, such as previous attachment, transformations of love, endeavors for love, and exchanges of letters disclosing the gopīs’ awakening love for Kṛṣṇa.
CC Antya 1.141 Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī gradually informed Rāmānanda Rāya about everything he asked. Hearing his explanations, all the devotees of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu were struck with wonder.
CC Antya 1.142 “[Experiencing previous attachment to Kṛṣṇa (pūrva-rāga), Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī thought:] ‘Since I have heard the name of a person called Kṛṣṇa, I have practically lost My good sense. Then, there is another person who plays His flute in such a way that after I hear the vibration, intense madness arises in My heart. And again there is still another person to whom My mind becomes attached when I see His beautiful lightninglike effulgence in His picture. Therefore I think that I am greatly condemned, for I have become simultaneously attached to three persons. It would be better for Me to die because of this.’
CC Antya 1.143 “ ‘My dear friend, these palpitations of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s heart are extremely difficult to cure. Even if one applied some medical treatment, it would only end in defamation.’
CC Antya 1.144 “ ‘O dearly beautiful one, the artistic loveliness of Your picture is now impressed within My mind. Since You are now living within My mind, wherever I wish to run because I am agitated by impressions of You, I find that You, O My friend, are blocking My way.”’
CC Antya 1.145 “ ‘Upon seeing peacock feathers in front of Her, this girl suddenly begins trembling. When She sometimes sees a necklace of guñjā [small conchshells], She sheds tears and cries loudly. I do not know what kind of new ecstatic influence has entered the heart of this poor girl. It has imbued Her with the dancing attitude of a player creating wonderful, unprecedented dances on a stage.’
CC Antya 1.146 “[Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī said to Her constant companion Viśākhā:] ‘My dear friend, if Kṛṣṇa is unkind to Me, there will be no need for you to cry, for it will not be due to any fault of yours. I shall then have to die, but afterwards please do one thing for Me: to observe My funeral ceremony, place My body with its arms embracing a tamāla tree like creepers so that I may remain forever in Vṛndāvana undisturbed. That is My last request.’ ”
CC Antya 1.147 Rāmānanda Rāya inquired, “What are the characteristics of emotional love?”
CC Antya 1.148 “ ‘My dear beautiful friend, if one develops love of Godhead, love of Kṛṣṇa, the son of Nanda Mahārāja, all the bitter and sweet influences of this love will manifest in one’s heart. Such love of Godhead acts in two ways. The poisonous effects of love of Godhead defeat the severe and fresh poison of the serpent. Yet there is simultaneously transcendental bliss, which pours down and defeats the poisonous effects of a snake, as well as the happiness derived from pouring nectar on one’s head. It is perceived as doubly effective, simultaneously poisonous and nectarean.’ ”
CC Antya 1.149 Rāmānanda Rāya further inquired, “What are the natural characteristics of awakening love of Godhead?”
CC Antya 1.150 “ ‘When one hears praise from his beloved, he outwardly remains neutral but feels pain within his heart. When he hears his beloved making accusations about him, he takes them to be jokes and enjoys pleasure. When he finds faults in his beloved, they do not diminish his love, nor do the beloved’s good qualities increase his spontaneous affection. Thus spontaneous love continues under all circumstances. That is how spontaneous love of Godhead acts within the heart.’
CC Antya 1.151 “ ‘Upon hearing of My cruelty, moon-faced Rādhārāṇī may establish some kind of tolerance in Her aggrieved heart. But then She might turn against Me. Or, indeed, being fearful of the lusty desires invoked by the bow of formidable Cupid, She might even give up Her life. Alas! I have foolishly uprooted the soft creeper of Her desire just when it was ready to bear fruit.’
CC Antya 1.152 “ ‘Desiring the happiness of His association and embraces, My dear friend, I disregarded even My superiors and relaxed My shyness and gravity before them. Furthermore, although you are My best friend, more dear to Me than My own life, I have given you so much trouble. Indeed, I even put aside the vow of dedication to My husband, a vow kept by the most elevated women. Oh, alas! Although He is now neglecting Me, I am so sinful that I am still living. Therefore I must condemn My so-called patience.’
CC Antya 1.153 “ ‘I was engaged in My own playful activities in My home, and because of My childish innocence I did not know right from wrong. Therefore, is it good for You to have forced Us into being so much attracted to You and then to have neglected Us? Now You are indifferent to Us. Do You think this is right?’
CC Antya 1.154 “ ‘Our hearts are so polluted by miserable conditions that we are certainly going to Pluto’s kingdom. Nevertheless, Kṛṣṇa does not give up His beautiful loving smiling, which is full of cheating tricks. O Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, You are very intelligent. How could You have developed such great loving affection for this deceitful debauchee from the neighborhood of the cowherds?’
CC Antya 1.155 “ ‘O Lord Kṛṣṇa, You are just like an ocean. The river of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī has reached You from a long distance — leaving far behind the tree of Her husband, breaking through the bridge of social convention, and forcibly crossing the hills of elder relatives. Coming here because of fresh feelings of love for You, that river has now received Your shelter, but now You are trying to turn Her back by the waves of unfavorable words. How is it that You are spreading this attitude?’ ”
CC Antya 1.156 Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya further inquired, “How have you described Vṛndāvana, the vibration of the transcendental flute, and the relationship between Kṛṣṇa and Rādhikā?
CC Antya 1.157 “Please tell me all this, for your poetic ability is wonderful.” After offering obeisances to Rāmānanda Rāya, Rūpa Gosvāmī gradually began answering his inquiries.
CC Antya 1.158 “ ‘The sweet, fragrant honey oozing from newly grown mango buds is again and again attracting groups of bumblebees, and this forest is trembling in the softly moving breezes from the Malaya Hills, which are full of sandalwood trees. Thus the forest of Vṛndāvana is increasing My transcendental pleasure.’
CC Antya 1.159 “ ‘My dear friend, see how this forest of Vṛndāvana is full of transcendental creepers and trees. The tops of the creepers are full of flowers, and intoxicated bumblebees are buzzing around them, humming songs that please the ear and surpass even the Vedic hymns.’
CC Antya 1.160 “ ‘My dear friend, this forest of Vṛndāvana is giving great pleasure to our senses in various ways. Somewhere bumblebees are singing in groups, and in some places mild breezes are cooling the entire atmosphere. Somewhere the creepers and tree twigs are dancing, the mallikā flowers are expanding their fragrance, and an overabundance of juice is constantly flowing in showers from pomegranate fruits.’
CC Antya 1.161 “ ‘The flute of Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes measures three fingers in length, and it is bedecked with indranīla gems. At the ends of the flute are aruṇa gems [rubies], glittering beautifully, and between its ends the flute is plated with gold set ablaze by diamonds. This auspicious flute, pleasing to Kṛṣṇa, is glittering in His hand with transcendental brilliance.’
CC Antya 1.162 “ ‘My dear friend the flute, it appears that you have been born of a very good family, for your residence is in the hands of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. By birth you are simple and are not at all crooked. Why then have you taken initiation into this dangerous mantra that enchants the assembled gopīs?’
CC Antya 1.163 “ ‘My dear friend the flute, you are actually full of many holes or faults. You are light, hard, juiceless and full of knots. But what kind of pious activities have engaged you in the service of being kissed by the Lord and embraced by His hands?’
CC Antya 1.164 “ ‘The transcendental vibration of Kṛṣṇa’s flute blocked the movements of the rain clouds, struck the Gandharvas full of wonder, and agitated the meditation of great saintly persons like Sanaka and Sanandana. It created wonder in Lord Brahmā, wrought intense curiosity that agitated the mind of Bali Mahārāja, who was otherwise firmly fixed, made Mahārāja Ananta, the carrier of the planets, whirl around, and penetrated the strong coverings of the universe. Thus the sound of the flute in the hands of Kṛṣṇa created a wonderful situation.’
CC Antya 1.165 “ ‘The beauty of Kṛṣṇa’s eyes surpasses the beauty of white lotus flowers, His yellow garments surpass the brilliance of fresh decorations of kuṅkuma, His ornaments of selected forest flowers subdue the hankering for the best of garments, and His bodily beauty possesses mind-attracting splendor greater than the jewels known as marakata-maṇi [emeralds].’
CC Antya 1.166 “ ‘O most beautiful friend, please accept the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is standing before You full of transcendental bliss. The borders of His eyes roam from side to side, and His eyebrows move slowly like bumblebees on His lotuslike face. Standing with His right foot placed below the knee of His left leg, the middle of His body curved in three places, and His neck gracefully tilted to the side, He takes His flute to His pursed lips and moves His fingers upon it here and there.’
CC Antya 1.167 “ ‘O beautiful-faced one, who is this creative person standing before us? With the sharp chisels of His loving glances, He is splitting the hard stones of many women’s devotion to their husbands. And with the luster of His body, surpassing the brilliance of countless emeralds, He is simultaneously constructing private meeting places for His pastimes.’
CC Antya 1.168 “ ‘My dear friend, this newly youthful Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the moon in the family of Nanda Mahārāja, is so beautiful that He defies the beauty of clusters of valuable jewels. All glories to the vibration of His flute, for it is cunningly breaking the patience of chaste ladies by loosening their belts and tight dresses.’
CC Antya 1.169 “ ‘The beauty of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s eyes forcibly devours the beauty of newly grown blue lotus flowers, and the beauty of Her face surpasses that of an entire forest of fully blossomed lotuses. Her bodily luster seems to place even gold into a painful situation. Thus the wonderful, unprecedented beauty of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is awakening in Vṛndāvana.’
CC Antya 1.170 “ ‘Although the effulgence of the moon is brilliant initially at night, in the daytime it fades away. Similarly, although the lotus is beautiful during the daytime, at night it closes. But, O My friend, the face of My most dear Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is always bright and beautiful, both day and night. Therefore, to what can Her face be compared?’
CC Antya 1.171 “ ‘When Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī smiles, waves of joy flow over Her cheeks, and Her arched eyebrows dance like the bow of Cupid. Her glance is so enchanting that it is like a dancing bumblebee moving unsteadily due to intoxication. That bee has bitten the whorl of My heart.’ ”
CC Antya 1.172 Having heard these verses recited by Rūpa Gosvāmī, Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya said, “Your poetic expressions are like continuous showers of nectar. Kindly let me hear the introductory portion of the second drama.”
CC Antya 1.173 Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī said, “In your presence, which is just like brilliant sunshine, I am as insignificant as the light of a glowworm.
CC Antya 1.174 “It is even impudent for me to open my mouth before you.” Then, having said this, he recited the introductory verse of the Lalita-mādhava.
CC Antya 1.175 “ ‘The beautiful moonlike glories of Mukunda give distress to the lotuslike faces of the wives of the demons and to their raised breasts, which are like gleaming cakravāka birds. Those glories, however, are pleasing to all His devotees, who are like cakora birds. May those glories forever give pleasure to you all.’ ”
CC Antya 1.176 When Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya further inquired about the second introductory verse, Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī was somewhat hesitant, but nevertheless he began to recite.
CC Antya 1.177 “ ‘The moonlike Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is known as the son of mother Śacī, has now appeared on earth to spread devotional love of Himself. He is the emperor of the brāhmaṇa community. He can drive away all the darkness of ignorance and control the mind of everyone in the world. May that rising moon bestow upon us all good fortune.’ ”
CC Antya 1.178 Although Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was inwardly greatly pleased when He heard this verse, externally He spoke as if angry.
CC Antya 1.179 “Your exalted poetic descriptions of the mellows of Lord Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes are like an ocean of nectar. But why have you put in a false prayer about Me? It is like a drop of detestable alkali.”
CC Antya 1.180 Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya objected, “It is not alkali at all. It is a particle of camphor he has put into the nectar of his exalted poetic expression.”
CC Antya 1.181 Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, “My dear Rāmānanda Rāya, you are jubilant at hearing these poetic expressions, but I am ashamed to hear them, for people in general will joke about the subject of this verse.”
CC Antya 1.182 Rāmānanda Rāya said, “Instead of joking, people in general will feel great pleasure in hearing such poetry, for the initial remembrance of the worshipable Deity invokes good fortune.”
CC Antya 1.183 Rāmānanda Rāya inquired, “By which subdivision of style do the players enter?” Rūpa Gosvāmī then began to speak specifically about this subject.
CC Antya 1.184 “ ‘While dancing on the stage after having killed the ruler of uncivilized men [Kaṁsa], Lord Kṛṣṇa, master of all arts, will at the proper time accept the hand of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, who is qualified with all transcendental attributes.’
CC Antya 1.185 “This introduction is technically called udghātyaka, and the whole scene is called vīthī. You are so expert in dramatic expression that each of my statements before you is like a wave from an ocean of impudence.
CC Antya 1.186 “ ‘To explain an unclear word, men generally join it with other words. Such an attempt is called udghātyaka.’ ”
CC Antya 1.187 When Rāmānanda Rāya requested Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī to speak further about various portions of the play, Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī briefly quoted his Lalita-mādhava.
CC Antya 1.188 “ ‘The dust from cows and calves on the road creates a kind of darkness indicating that Kṛṣṇa is returning home from the pasture. Also, the darkness of evening provokes the gopīs to meet Kṛṣṇa. Thus the pastimes of Kṛṣṇa and the gopīs are covered by a kind of transcendental darkness and are therefore impossible for ordinary scholars of the Vedas to see.’
CC Antya 1.189 “ ‘May the sweet sound of Lord Kṛṣṇa’s flute, His authorized messenger, be glorified, for it expertly releases Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī from Her shyness and attracts Her from Her home to the forest.’
CC Antya 1.190 “ ‘My dear friend, who is this fearless young man? He is as bright as a lightning cloud, and He wanders in His pastimes like a maddened elephant. From where has He come to Vṛndāvana? Alas, by His restless movements and attractive glances He is plundering from the vault of My heart the treasure of My patience.’
CC Antya 1.191 “ ‘Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the Ganges in which the elephant of My mind enjoys pastimes. She is the shining of the full autumn moon for the cakora birds of My eyes. She is the dazzling ornament, the bright and beautiful arrangement of stars, on the border of the sky of My chest. Now today I have gained Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī because of the highly elevated state of My mind.’ ”
CC Antya 1.192 After hearing this, Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya submitted at the lotus feet of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu the superexcellence of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī’s poetic expression and began to praise it as if he had thousands of mouths.
CC Antya 1.193 Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya said, “This is not a poetic presentation; it is a continuous shower of nectar. Indeed, it is the essence of all ultimate realizations, appearing in the form of plays.
CC Antya 1.194 “The wonderful descriptions of Rūpa Gosvāmī are superb arrangements to express loving affairs. Hearing them will plunge the heart and ears of everyone into a whirlpool of transcendental bliss.
CC Antya 1.195 “ ‘What is the use of a bowman’s arrow or a poet’s poetry if they penetrate the heart but do not cause the head to spin?’
CC Antya 1.196 “Without Your mercy such poetic expressions would be impossible for an ordinary living being to write. My guess is that You have given him the power.”
CC Antya 1.197 Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu replied, “I met Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī at Prayāga. He attracted and satisfied Me because of his qualities.”
CC Antya 1.198 Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu praised the metaphors and other literary ornaments of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī’s transcendental poetry. Without such poetic attributes, He said, there is no possibility of preaching transcendental mellows.
CC Antya 1.199 Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu requested all His personal associates to bless Rūpa Gosvāmī so that he might continuously describe the pastimes of Vṛndāvana, which are full of emotional love of Godhead.
CC Antya 1.200 Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, “Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī’s elder brother, whose name is Sanātana Gosvāmī, is such a wise and learned scholar that no one is equal to him.”
CC Antya 1.201 Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu told Rāmānanda Rāya, “Sanātana Gosvāmī’s renunciation of material connections is just like yours. Humility, renunciation and excellent learning exist in him simultaneously.
CC Antya 1.202 “I empowered both of these brothers to go to Vṛndāvana to expand the literature of bhakti.”
CC Antya 1.203 Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya replied to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, “My Lord, You are the Supreme Personality of Godhead. If You like, You can cause even a wooden doll to dance.
CC Antya 1.204 “I see that the truths regarding transcendental mellows that You expounded through my mouth are all explained in the writings of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī.
CC Antya 1.205 “Because of Your causeless mercy toward Your devotees, You want to describe the transcendental pastimes in Vṛndāvana. Anyone empowered to do this can bring the entire world under Your influence.”
CC Antya 1.206 Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then embraced Rūpa Gosvāmī and asked him to offer prayers at the lotus feet of all the devotees present.
CC Antya 1.207 Advaita Ācārya, Nityānanda Prabhu and all the other devotees showed their causeless mercy to Rūpa Gosvāmī by embracing him in return.
CC Antya 1.208 Seeing Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s special mercy toward Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī and seeing his personal qualities, all the devotees were struck with wonder.
CC Antya 1.209 Then, when Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu left with all of His devotees, Haridāsa Ṭhākura also embraced Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī.
CC Antya 1.210 Haridāsa Ṭhākura told him, “There is no limit to your good fortune. No one can understand the glories of what you have described.”
CC Antya 1.211 Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī said, “I do not know anything. The only transcendental words I can utter are those which Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu makes me speak.
CC Antya 1.212 “Although I am the lowest of men and have no knowledge, the Lord has mercifully bestowed upon me the inspiration to write transcendental literature about devotional service. Therefore I offer my obeisances at the lotus feet of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who has given me the chance to write these books.”
CC Antya 1.213 In this way Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī passed his time in close association with Haridāsa Ṭhākura by discussing the pastimes of Lord Kṛṣṇa in great happiness.
CC Antya 1.214 All the devotees of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu thus spent four months with Him. Then the Lord bade them farewell, and they returned to Bengal.
CC Antya 1.215 Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī, however, stayed at the lotus feet of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, and when the Dola-yātrā festival took place, he saw it in great happiness with the Lord.
CC Antya 1.216 After the Dola-yātrā festival ended, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu bade farewell to Rūpa Gosvāmī also. The Lord empowered him and bestowed upon him all kinds of mercy.
CC Antya 1.217 “Now go to Vṛndāvana and stay there,” the Lord said. “You may send here your elder brother, Sanātana.
CC Antya 1.218 “When you go to Vṛndāvana, stay there, preach transcendental literature and excavate the lost holy places.
CC Antya 1.219 “Establish the service of Lord Kṛṣṇa and preach the mellows of Lord Kṛṣṇa’s devotional service. I shall also go to Vṛndāvana once more.”
CC Antya 1.220 Having thus spoken, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu embraced Rūpa Gosvāmī, who then placed the lotus feet of the Lord upon his head.
CC Antya 1.221 Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī took leave of all the devotees of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and returned to Vṛndāvana by the path through Bengal.
CC Antya 1.222 Thus I have described the second meeting of Rūpa Gosvāmī and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Anyone who hears of this incident will certainly attain shelter at the lotus feet of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
CC Antya 1.223 Praying at the lotus feet of Śrī Rūpa and Śrī Raghunātha, always desiring their mercy, I, Kṛṣṇadāsa, narrate Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, following in their footsteps.