Appendix A -Index of Names in Bhagavad-gītā

Index of Names in Bhagavad-gītā

This index lists, explains, and provides verse locations for 237 names occurring in the texts and translations of Bhagavad-gītā As It Is.

The categories in this index are:

Names of Śrī Kṛṣṇa (55)
Names of Arjuna (25)
Names of Other Persons (105)

Conchshells (6)
Groups (23)
Locations (5)
Miscellaneous (4)
Natural Phenomena (6)
Texts (7)
Weapons (1).

Names of Śrī Kṛṣṇa

Acyuta—He who never fails His devotees and who never falls down from His position. (1.21, 11.42, 18.73)

Adhiyajña—the Lord of sacrifice; the Super-soul, the plenary expansion of the Lord in the heart of every living being. (8.2, 8.4)

Ādideva—the original Supreme God. (11.38)

Ādikartā—the supreme creator. (11.37)

Amitavikrama—having unlimited strength. (11.40)

Ananta—He who is unending; He who has no limit. (11.37)

Ananta-rūpa—unlimited form. (11.38) See also: Viśvamūrti, Viśvarūpa.

Anantavīrya—having unlimited potency. (11.19, 11.40)

Aprameya—who is immeasurable. (11.17, 11.42)

Apratimaprabhāva—whose power is immeasurable. (11.43)

Arisūdana—killer of the enemies. (2.4)

Bhagavān—Supreme Personality of Godhead; “He who possesses all opulences”; the Supreme Lord, who is the reservoir of all beauty, strength, fame, wealth, knowledge and renunciation; the name refers to the personal form of the Absolute Truth. (10.14, 10.17, (śrī-bhagavān uvāca: 2.2, 2.11, 2.55, 3.3, 3.37, 4.1, 4.5, 5.2, 6.1, 6.35, 6.40, 7.1, 8.3, 9.1, 10.1, 10.19, 11.5, 11.32, 11.47, 11.52, 12.2, 13.2, 14.1, 14.22, 15.1, 16.1, 17.2, 18.2))

Bhūtabhāvana—source of all manifestations; origin of everything. (9.5, 10.15)

Bhūtabhṛt—maintainer of all living entities. (9.5)

Bhūteśa—Lord of everything; the supreme controller of everyone. (10.15)

Deva—Supreme Personality of Godhead; God. (11.14, 11.15, 11.44, 11.45)

Devadeva—Lord of all demigods; God of gods. (10.15, 11.13)

Devavara—great one amongst the demigods; best of gods. (11.31)

Deveśa—Lord of all lords; God of the gods. (11.25, 11.37, 11.45)

Govinda—giver and object of pleasure to the cows and to the senses. (1.32, 2.9)

Hari—“He who removes all inauspiciousness and steals the hearts of His devotees.” (11.9, 18.77)

Hṛṣīkeśa—Kṛṣṇa, the Lord who directs the senses of the devotees; the master of the senses. (1.15, 1.20, 1.24, 2.9, 2.10, 11.36, 18.1)

Īśa—the Supreme Lord. (11.44)

Īśvara—the Supreme Lord; the Supreme Controller. (4.6, 15.17, 18.61)

Jagannivāsa—refuge of the universe. (11.25, 11.37, 11.45)

Jagatpati—Lord of the entire universe. (10.15)

Janārdana—maintainer of all living entities; chastiser of the enemies; also “He who re-moves the ignorance of His devotees.” (1.35, 1.38, 1.43, 3.1, 10.18, 11.51)

Kāla—time (another form of Kṛṣṇa). (11.32)

Kamalapatrākṣa—lotus-petal-eyed one. (11.2)

Keśava—the Supreme Lord, Kṛṣṇa, who has fine, long black hair; killer of the demon Keśī. (1.30, 2.54, 3.1, 10.14, 11.35, 13.1, 18.76) See also Keśiniṣūdana; (Names of other persons) Keśī.

Keśiniṣūdana—killer of the Keśī demon. (18.1) See also Keśava; (Names of other persons) Keśī.

Kṛṣṇa—‘dark blue’; the original, two-armed form of the Supreme Lord, who is the origin of all expansions; the Supreme Personality of Godhead; the all-attractive person. (1.28, 1.31, 1.40, 5.1, 6.34, 6.37, 6.39, 11.35, 11.41, 17.1, 18.75, 18.78)

Mādhava—husband of the goddess of fortune; “He who appeared in the Madhu dynasty.” (1.14, 1.36)

Madhusūdana—killer of the demon Madhu. (1.34, 2.1, 2.4, 6.33, 8.2) See also (Names of other persons) Madhu.

Mahābāhu—having mighty arms. (6.38, 11.23, 18.1) See also (Names of Arjuna) Arjuna, Mahābāhu.

Mahātmā—the great Lord; the great soul. (11.12, 11.20, 11.37, 11.50, 18.74)

Mahāyogeśvara—the most powerful mystic. (11.9)

Parameśvara—the supreme controller. (11.3, 13.28)

Prabhu—the Lord, or the Master. (9.18, 9.24, 11.4, 14.21)

Prajāpati—the Lord of creatures (Viṣṇu). (3.10)

Prapitāmaha—the Lord is sometimes addressed as prapitāmaha, the great-grandfather, be-cause He is the creator of Brahmā who is known pitāmaha, the grandfather and creator of one universe. (11.39) See also (Names of other persons) Brahmā.

Puruṣottama—Lord Kṛṣṇa, who is the Supreme Person, meaning “the most exalted person.” (8.1, 10.15, 11.3, 15.18, 15.19)

Sahasrabāhu—thousand-handed one. (11.46)

Sakha—dear friend. (11.41)

Ugrarūpa—whose form is fierce. (11.31)

Vārṣṇeya—descendant of Vṛṣṇi. (1.40, 3.36)

Vāsudeva—the Supreme Lord, Kṛṣṇa, son of Vasudeva, and proprietor of everything, material and spiritual. (7.19, 11.50, 18.74)

Viṣṇu—the Personality of Godhead; “He who pervades the entire universe.” (10.21, 11.24, 11.30)

Viśvamūrti—personification of the universe. (11.46)

Viśvarūpa—whose form is the universe. (11.16)

Viśveśvara—Lord of the universe; the ultimate controller. (11.16)

Yādava—He who appears in the Yadu dynasty. (11.41)

Yajña—“the personification of sacrifice”; the goal and enjoyer of all sacrifices. (3.9, 4.23)

Yogeśvara—the supreme master of all mystic powers. (11.4, 18.75, 18.78)

Yogi—supreme mystic. (10.17)

Names of Arjuna

Anagha—sinless one. (3.3, 14.6, 15.20)

Arjuna—‘silver white’; the third son of Pāṇḍu and intimate friend of Lord Kṛṣṇa. (1.46, 2.2, 2.45, 3.7, 4.5, 4.9, 4.37, 6.16, 6.32, 6.46, 7.16, 7.26, 8.16, 8.27, 9.19, 10.32, 10.39, 10.42, 11.47, 11.50, 11.54, 18.9, 18.34, 18.61, 18.76, (arjuna uvāca: 1.4, 1.21, 1.28, 2.4, 2.54, 3.1, 3.36, 4.4, 5.1, 6.33, 6.37, 8.1, 10.12, 11.1, 11.15, 11.36, 11.51, 12.1, 13.1, 14.21, 17.1, 18.1, 18.73)) See also (Names of persons) Pāṇḍu.

Bhārata—descendant of Bharata. (2.14, 2.18, 2.28, 2.30, 3.25, 4.7, 4.42, 7.27, 11.6, 13.3, 13.34, 14.3, 14.8, 14.9, 14.10, 15.19, 15.20, 16.3, 17.3, 18.62) See also (Names of other persons) Bharata.

Bharatarṣabha—chief amongst the descendants of Bharata; best of the Bhāratas. (3.41, 7.11, 7.16, 8.23, 13.27, 14.12, 18.36) See also (Names of other persons) Bharata.

Bharatasattama—best of the Bhāratas. (18.4) See also (Names of other persons) Bharata.

Bharataśreṣṭha—chief of the Bhāratas. (17.12) See also (Names of other persons) Bharata.

Dehabhṛtāṁ vara—best of the embodied. (8.4)

Dhanañjaya—conqueror of wealth. (1.15, 2.48, 2.49, 4.41, 7.7, 9.9, 10.37, 11.14, 12.9, 18.29, 18.72)

Dhanurdhara—carrier of the bow and arrow; carrier of the Gāṇḍīva bow, which can never be defeated in war. (18.78) See also (Weapons) Gāṇḍīva.

Guḍākeśa—Arjuna, the master of curbing ignorance. (1.24, 2.9, 10.20, 11.7)

Kapidhvaja—he whose flag was marked with Hanumān. (1.20) See also (Names of other persons) Hanumān.

Kaunteya—son of Kuntī. (1.27, 2.14, 2.37, 2.60, 3.9, 3.39, 5.22, 6.35, 7.8, 8.6, 8.16, 9.7, 9.10, 9.23, 9.27, 9.31, 10.23, 10.27, 10.31, 13.2, 13.32, 14.4, 14.7, 16.20, 16.22, 18.48, 18.50, 18.60) See also (Names of other persons) Kuntī, Pṛthā.

Kirītī—diademed one. (11.35)

Kurunandana—beloved child of the Kurus. (2.41, 6.43, 14.13) See also (Names of other persons) Kuru.

Kurupravīra—best among the Kuru warriors. (11.48) See also (Names of other persons) Kuru.

Kurusattama—best amongst the Kurus. (4.31) See also (Names of other persons) Kuru.

Kuruśreṣṭha—best of the Kurus. (10.19) See also (Names of other persons) Kuru.

Mahābāhu—having mighty arms. (2.26, 2.68, 3.28, 3.43, 5.3, 5.6, 6.35, 7.5, 10.1, 14.5, 18.13) See also (Names of Śrī Kṛṣṇa) Mahābāhu.

Pāṇḍava—the son of Pāṇḍu. (1.14, 1.20, 4.35, 6.2, 10.37, 11.13, 11.55, 14.22, 16.5) See also (Names of other persons) Pāṇḍu.

Parantapa—chastiser, subduer, conqueror of the enemy. (2.3, 2.9, 4.2, 4.5, 4.33, 7.27, 9.3, 10.40, 11.54, 18.41)

Pārtha—son of Pṛthā (Kuntī). (1.25, 1.26, 2.3, 2.21, 2.32, 2.39, 2.42, 2.55, 2.72, 3.16, 3.22, 3.23, 4.11, 4.33, 6.40, 7.1, 7.10, 8.8, 8.14, 8.19, 8.22, 8.27, 9.13, 9.32, 10.24, 11.5, 11.9, 12.7, 16.4, 16.6, 17.26, 17.28, 18.6, 18.30, 18.31, 18.32, 18.33, 18.34, 18.35, 18.72, 18.74, 18.78) See also Kaunteya, Pāṇḍava; (Names of other persons) Pṛthā, Kuntī.

Puruṣarṣabha—best among men. (2.15)

Puruṣavyāghra—tiger among men. (18.4)

Savyasācī—ambidextrous archer. (11.33)

Tāta—My (Kṛṣṇa’s) friend. (6.40)

Names of Other Persons

Abhimanyu—‘into anger’; the heroic son of Arjuna and his second wife, Subhadrā. (1.18) See also Saubhadra, Subhadrā; (Names of Arjuna) Arjuna.

Agni—the demigod who controls fire. (8.24, 10.23, 11.39)

Aha—presiding deity of day; day personified as one of the eight Vasus. (8.24) See (Names of groups) Vasus.

Airāvata—the elephant of King Indra that was produced from churning the ocean of milk by the demigods and demons. (10.27) See Indra.

Ananta—an incarnation of the Supreme Lord in the form of His thousand-headed serpent, on which Viṣṇu rests, and who sustains the planets on His hoods. (10.29) See also (Names of Śrī Kṛṣṇa) Viṣṇu; (Names of groups) Nāgas.

Aryamā—the demigod in charge of Pitṛloka, the planet where qualified departed ancestors reside; one of the twelve Ādityas who officiated at the post of Yamarāja when he incarnated himself. (10.29) See also Yama (Yamarāja); (Names of groups) Ādityas.

Asita—a great powerful sage and ancient authority on the Vedas. (10.13)

Aśvatthāmā—‘he who has the strength of a horse’; the son of Droṇa and Kṛpī (sister of Kṛpa). (1.8) See also Droṇa (Droṇācārya), Kṛpa.

Bharata—an ancient king of Bhārata-varṣa (which once encompassed the entire earth) and a great devotee of the Lord from whom the Pāṇḍavas descended. (1.24, 2.10, 2.14, 2.18, 2.30, 4.7, 7.27, 13.3, 13.34, 14.3, 14.8, 14.9, 14.10, 15.19, 16.1-3, 17.3, 18.62) See also Bhārata (other name of Dhṛtarāṣṭra); (Names of Arjuna) Bhārata, Bharatarṣabha, Bharatasat-tama, Bharataśreṣṭha; (Names of groups) Pāṇḍavas.

Bhārata—another name of Dhṛtarāṣṭra; descendent of Bharata. (1.24, 2.10) See Dhṛtarāṣṭra. See also Bharata, Mahīpati.

Bhīma—the second son of Kuntī (by Vāyu); one of the five Pāṇḍavas. (1.4, 1.10, 1.15) See also Bhīmakarma, Kuntī, Vāyu, Vṛkodara; (Names of groups) Pāṇḍavas.

Bhīmakarma—another name of Bhīma, mea-ning “one who performs herculean tasks.” (1.15) See Bhīma. See also Vṛkodara.

Bhīṣma (Bhīṣmadeva)—‘terrible, awful’; the grandfather of the Pāṇḍavas, and the most powerful and venerable warrior on the Battlefield of Kurukṣetra. (1.8, 1.10, 1.11, 1.12, 1.25, 2.4, 11.26, 11.34) See also: Kuruvṛddha; (Names of groups) Pāṇḍavas; (Names of locations) Kurukṣetra.

Bhūriśravā—‘he whose praise abounds’; Kaurava warrior and one of the three sons of Somadatta, a King of the Kuru dynasty. (1.8) See also Kuru, Somadatta.

Brahmā—one of the twelve mahājanas, authorities on devotional service to the Lord, and one of the primal demigods. He is the first created living being and secondary creator of the material universe. Directed by Lord Viṣṇu, he creates all life forms in the universes. He also rules the mode of passion. (8.17, 8.18, 8.19, 10.33, 11.15, 11.37, 11.39) See also Viśvatomukha; (Names of Śrī Kṛṣṇa) Prapitāmaha; Disciplic succession, p. ...

Bṛghu—the leader of many sages in the universe. (10.25)

Bṛhaspati—the spiritual master of King Indra and chief priest for the demigods. (10.24) See also Indra.

Cekitāna—‘intelligent’; a warrior of the Yadu dynasty who fought on the side of the Pāṇḍavas. (1.5) See also Yadu; (Names of groups) Pāṇḍavas.

Citraratha—king of and best singer among the Gandharvas, the celestial demigod dancers, singers, and musicians of the heavenly planets. (10.26) See also (Names of groups) Gandharvas.

Devala—an ancient authority on the Vedas. (10.13)

Dhṛṣṭadyumna—‘he whose splendor is bold’; the first born son of King Drupada (drupada-putreṇa) and the brother of Draupadī. (1.3, 1.17) See also Draupadī, Drupada.

Dhṛṣṭaketu—‘he whose brightness is bold’; the son of Śiśupāla who took the side of the Pāṇḍavas during the Kurukṣetra war and who was killed by Droṇa. (1.5) See also Droṇa (Droṇācārya); (Names of groups) Pāṇḍavas; (Names of locations) Kurukṣetra.

Dhṛtarāṣṭra—the father of the Kurus and the uncle of the Pāṇḍavas whose attempt to usurp their kingdom for the sake of his own sons resulted in the Kurukṣetra war. (1.1, 1.19, 1.20, 1.23, 1.24, 1.35, 1.36, 1.45, 2.6, 11.26, 11.35, 11.50) See also Bhārata, Mahīpati; (Names of groups) Kurus, Pāṇḍavas; (Names of locations) Kurukṣetra.

Dhṛti—Resolution or Satisfaction personified; daughter of Prajāpati Dakṣa. (10.34)

Dhūma—presiding deity of smoke. (8.25)

Draupadī—the daughter of King Drupada, and wife of all five Pāṇḍavas; she was a great devotee of Lord Kṛṣṇa. (1.6, 1.18) See also Drupada; (Names of Śrī Kṛṣṇa) Kṛṣṇa; (Names of groups) Draupadeyās, Pāṇḍavas.

Droṇa (Droṇācārya)—the martial preceptor of both the Pāṇḍavas and the Kurus; the commander-in-chief of the Kurus. (1.3, 1.7, 1.8, 1.25, 2.4, 11.26, 11.34) See also Dvijottama; (Names of groups) Kurus, Pāṇḍavas.

Drupada—‘rapid step’; the King of Pāñcāla, and the father of Draupadī and Dhṛṣṭadyumna. (1.3, 1.4, 1.18) See also Dhṛṣṭadyumna, Draupadī.

Duryodhana—‘dirty fighter’; the first born and chief of the evil-minded one hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra, and chief rival of the Pāṇḍavas. (1.2, 1.12, 1.23) See also Dhṛtarāṣṭra; (Names of groups) Dhārtarāṣṭras, Kurus, Pāṇḍavas.

Dvijottama—another name of Droṇa, meaning “best of the brāhmaṇas.” See Droṇa (Droṇācārya).

Garuḍa—a great devotee, the son of Aditi and Kaśyapa who takes the form of an eagle and is the eternal bird carrier of Lord Viṣṇu. (10.30) See also Vainateya; (Names of Śrī Kṛṣṇa), Viṣṇu.

Hanumān—son of Vāyu; the famous great monkey devotee of Lord Rāmacandra. (1.20) See also Vāyu; (Names of Arjuna) Kapi-dhvajaḥ.

Ikṣvāku—the son of Manu who was king of the earth at the beginning of the present manvantara and to whom Manu spoke Bhagavad-gītā. (4.1) See also Manu.

Indra—the chief sovereign of heaven and pre-siding deity of rain. (9.20, 10.22) See also Vāsava.

Īśa—another name of Śiva. (11.15) See Śiva.

Janaka—one of the twelve mahājanas, authorities on devotional service to the Lord. He is the great self-realized king of Mithilā, and the father of Sītā-devī, consort of Lord Rāmacandra. (3.20)

Jayadratha—the King of Sindhu who was killed by Arjuna in the battle of Kurukṣetra. (11.34) See also (Names of Arjuna) Arjuna; (Names of locations) Kurukṣetra.

Jyoti—presiding deity of light. (8.24)

Kandarpa—Cupid, the god of love. (10.28)

Kapila—an incarnation of Kṛṣṇa who appear-ed in Satya-yuga as the son of Devahūti and Kardama Muni and expounded the devotional Sāṅkhya philosophy, the analysis of matter and spirit, as a means of cultivating devotional service to the Lord. (There is also an atheist named Kapila, but he is not an incarnation of the Lord.) (10.26) See also Kṛṣṇa.

Karṇa—the eldest son of Kuntī before her marriage to Pāṇḍu, and thus the unacknowledged half-brother of Arjuna and the other Pāṇḍava princes. (1.8, 11.26, 11.34) See also Kuntī, Pāṇḍu, Sūtaputra; (Names of Arjuna) Arjuna; (Names of groups) Pāṇḍavas.

Kārtikeya—the son of Lord Śiva, the god of war, and the chief of all military commanders; also known as Skanda and Subrahmaṇya. (10.24) See also Śiva, Skanda.

Kāśirāja—King of Kāśī; also known as Kāśya. (1.5, 1.17) See also Kāśya.

Kāśya—another name of Kāśirāja (1.17) See Kāśirāja.

Keśī—a most formidable demon who assumed the form of a huge horse and who was killed by Lord Kṛṣṇa. (1.30, 18.1) See also: (Names of Śrī Kṛṣṇa) Keśava, Keśiniṣūdana, Kṛṣṇa.

Kīrti—Fame personified as the daughter of Dakṣa and the wife of Dharma; the devī who is the basis and cause of all reputation and fame. (10.34)

Kṛpa (Kṛpācārya)—‘pity’; one of Duryodhana’s captains; brother-in-law of Droṇa. (1.8) See also Droṇa, Duryodhana.

Kṛṣṇa—presiding deity of the fortnight of the dark moon; to be distinguished from Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. (8.25)

Kṣamā—Patience or Forgiveness personified as the daughter of Dakṣa and wife of Pulaha. (10.34)

Kuntī—the mother of the Pāṇḍavas and Lord Kṛṣṇa’s aunt. (1.16) See also Pṛthā; (Names of Śrī Kṛṣṇa) Kṛṣṇa; (Names of Arjuna) Kaunteya, Pārtha; (Names of groups) Pāṇḍavas.

Kuntibhoja—a king of the Yadu dynasty, and the foster father of Kuntī who he took the side of the Pāḍavas during the Kurukṣetra war. (1.5) See also Kuntī, Yadu; (Names of groups) Pāṇḍavas; (Names of locations) Kurukṣetra.

Kuru—the founder of the dynasty in which the Pāṇḍavas, as well as their archrivals, the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra, took birth. (1.12, 4.31, 6.43, 11.48, 14.13) See also Dhṛtarāṣṭra; (Names of Arjuna) Kurunandana, Kurupravīra, Kurusatta-ma, Kuruśreṣṭha; (Names of groups) Dhārtarā-ṣṭra (sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra), Kurus, Pāṇḍavas.

Kuruvṛddha—another name of Bhīṣma, mea-ning “the grandsire of the Kuru dynasty.” (1.12) See Bhīṣma. See also Kuru.

Kuvera—one of the important demigods in heaven, and the treasurer of wealth; also known as Vitteśa. (10.23) See also Vitteśa.

Madhu—a demon who was killed by Kṛṣṇa. (2.4) (Names of Śrī Kṛṣṇa) Madhusūdana.

Mahīpati—another name for Dhṛtarāṣṭra, meaning, “lord of the earth.” (1.20) See Dhṛtarāṣṭra. See also Bhārata.

Manu—the demigod who is the father of man-kind; also, a generic name for any of the fourteen universal rulers who appear in each day of Lord Brahmā. (4.1) See also (Names of persons) Brahmā; (Names of groups) Manus.

Marīci—the controlling deity of the forty-nine varieties of wind blowing in space. (10.21)

Medhā—Intelligence personified; the wife of Dharma and daughter of Dakṣa. (10.34)

Nakula—Sahadeva’s twin; the fourth of the five Pāṇḍavas, and the son of Mādrī, Pāṇḍu’s second wife, by the twin Aśvinī Kumāra demigods. (1.16) See also Pāṇḍu; (Names of groups) Aśvinī-kumāras, Aśvīs, Pāṇḍavas.

Nārada—one of the sons of Lord Brahmā; the direct disciple of Kṛṣṇa and the spiritual master of Vyāsa and of many other great devotees. (10.13, 10.26) See also Brahmā, Vyāsa; (Names of Śrī Kṛṣṇa) Kṛṣṇa;

Pāṇḍu—a great king of the Kuru dynasty, and the father of the Pāṇḍava brothers. (1.3) See also Kuru; (Names of groups) Pāṇḍavas.

Pāvaka—another name of Agni, one of the Vasus. (10.23) See also Agni; (Names of groups) Vasus.

Prahlāda—recognized as one of the twelve mahājanas, authorities on devotional service to the Lord; a great devotee of Lord Kṛṣṇa. (10.30). See also (Names of Śrī Kṛṣṇa) Kṛṣṇa; (Names of groups) Daityas.

Pṛthā—another name of Kuntī, the wife of King Pāṇḍu, mother of the Pāṇḍavas and aunt of Lord Kṛṣṇa. See also Kuntī, Pāṇḍu; (Names of Śrī Kṛṣṇa) Kṛṣṇa; (Names of Arjuna) Kaunteya, Pārtha; (Names of groups) Pāṇḍavas.

Purujit—great, heroic, powerful fighter and a Pāṇḍava ally. (1.5) See also (Names of groups) Pāṇḍavas.

Rāma (Paraśurāma)—the son of Maharṣi Jamadagni and Śrīmatī Reṇukā; the sixth incarnation of Lord Kṛṣṇa, who appeared in ancient times to overthrow the warrior class when they had become degraded. (10.31) See also (Names of Śrī Kṛṣṇa) Kṛṣṇa.

Rātri—presiding deity of night. (8.25)

Sahadeva—‘accompanied by the gods’; Nakula’s twin, and the fifth of the five Pāṇḍavas; born of the union of the Aśvinī-kumāra demigods and Mādrī. (1.16) See also Nakula; (Names of groups) Aśvinī-kumāras, Aśvīs.

Śaibya—‘relating to the Śibis’; King of the Śibis; great, heroic, powerful fighter and a Pāṇḍava ally. (1.5) See also (Names of groups) Pāṇḍavas.

Sañjaya—charioteer and minister to King Dhṛtarāṣṭra; narrator of the events at Kurukṣetra. (1.1, (sañjaya uvāca: 1.2, 1.24, 1.46, 2.1, 2.9, 11.9, 11.35, 11.50, 18.74)) See also Dhṛtarāṣṭra, (Names of locations) Kurukṣetra.

Śaṅkara—another name of Śiva. (10.23) See Śiva. See also Īśa.

Śaśāṅka—the moongod. (11.39)

Sātyaki—‘son of Satyaka’; a prominent member of the Yadu dynasty; intimate friend of Lord Kṛṣṇa and student of Arjuna. (1.17) See also Yadu; (Names of Śrī Kṛṣṇa) Kṛṣṇa; (Names of Arjuna) Arjuna.

Saubhadra—another name of Abhimanyu, the son of Subhadrā, wife of Arjuna. (1.6, 1.18) See also Abhimanyu, Subhadrā; (Names of Arjuna) Arjuna.

Śikhaṇḍī—‘he who wears a tuft of hair’; child of Drupada; a Pāṇḍava warrior, born to kill Bhīṣma, who he hated from his previous life. (1.17) See also Bhīṣma, Drupada, (Names of groups) Pāṇḍavas.

Śiva—one of the twelve mahājanas, authorities on devotional service to the Lord, and one of the primal demigods; the guṇa-avatāra who is the superintendent of the mode of ignorance (tamo-guṇa) and who takes charge of destroying the universe at the time of annihilation; considered the greatest Vaiṣṇava, or devotee, of Lord Kṛṣṇa; “The Auspicious one.” (10.23, 11.15, 11.22) See also Īśa, Śaṅkara; (Names of Śrī Kṛṣṇa) Kṛṣṇa; (Names of groups) Rudras.

Skanda—the son of Lord Śiva and the god of war; also known as Kārtikeya and Subrahmanya. (10.24) See also Kārtikeya.

Somadatta—the son of King Bāhlīka and the grandson of King Pratīpa. (1.8)

Smṛti—Memory personified as the daughter of Dakṣa. (10.34)

Śrī—Opulence or Beauty personified. (10.34)

Subhadrā—younger sister of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, and an incarnation of Yogamāyā, the internal potency of the Supreme Lord; wife of Arjuna and mother of Abhimanyu. (1.6, 1.18) See also Abhimanyu, Saubhadra; (Names of Śrī Kṛṣṇa) Kṛṣṇa; (Names of Arjuna) Arjuna.

Śukla—presiding deity of the white lunar fort-night. (8.24)

Sūtaputra—another name of Karṇa meaning “son of the charioteer.” (11.26) See also Karṇa.

Uccaiḥśravā—Indra’s horse which was born during the churning of the ocean for nectar. (10.27) See also Indra.

Uśanā—the spiritual master of the demons and an extremely intelligent and far-seeing politician; also known as Śukrācārya. (10.37) See also (Names of groups) Asuras.

Uttamaujā—a warrior ally of the Pāṇḍavas. (1.6) See also (Names of groups) Pāṇḍavas.

Vāk—Speech personified and the goddess of speech and learning; most frequently identified with Bhāratī or Sarasvatī. (10.34)

Varuṇa—the demigod in charge of the oceans. (10.29, 11.39)

Vāsava—another name of Indra as chief of the Vasus. (10.22) See Indra. See also (Names of groups) Vasus.

Vāsudeva—Baladeva, or Balarāma, Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s brother; in Bg. 10.37 “Vāsudeva” does not refer to Śrī Kṛṣṇa. (10.37) See also (Names of Śrī Kṛṣṇa) Vāsudeva.

Vāsuki—king of the serpents. (10.28) (Names of groups) Nāgas.

Vāyu—the demigod in charge of the wind; father of Bhīma and Hanumān. (11.39) See also Bhīma, Hanumān.

Vikarṇa—a brother of Duryodhana. (1.8) See also Duryodhana.

Virāṭa—‘ruling widely’; the King of the Matsyas who unknowingly sheltered the Pāṇḍavas during their last year of exile. (1.4, 1.17) See also (Names of groups) Pāṇḍavas.

Viśvatomukha—another name of Brahmā meaning “facing all sides”; sometimes also used as a name of Kṛṣṇa. (10.33) See also Brahmā.

Vitteśa—“lord of wealth”; another name of Kuvera, the lord of the treasury of the demigods. (10.23) See Kuvera.

Vivasvān—the name of the present sun-god, and Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s first disciple to understand the science of Bhagavad-gītā. (4.1, 4.4) See also (Names of Śrī Kṛṣṇa) Kṛṣṇa.

Vṛkodara—“voracious eater”; another name of Bhīma. (1.15) See Bhīma. See also Bhīmakarma.

Vṛṣṇi—a famous king of the Yadu dynasty, in which Lord Kṛṣṇa appeared. (1.40, 3.36, 10.37) See also Yadu, (Names of Śrī Kṛṣṇa) Kṛṣṇa,Vārṣṇeya.

Vyāsa—the son of Parāśara, and the literary incarnation of God; the greatest philosopher of ancient times, and the compiler of the original Vedic scriptures, including the eighteen Purāṇas, Vedānta-sūtra, the Mahābhārata, and the Upaniṣads. (10.13, 10.37, 18.75)

Yama (Yamarāja)—the demigod who punishes the sinful after death. (10.29, 11.39) See also Aryamā.

Yudhāmanyu—a prince of Pāñcāla who fought on the side of the Pāṇḍavas. (1.6) See also (Names of groups) Pāṇḍavas.

Yudhiṣṭhira—‘he who is steady in battle’; the eldest of the five Pāṇḍavas, and the son of Dharmarāja (Yamarāja). (1.16) See also Yama (Yamarāja); (Names of groups) Pāṇḍavas.

Yuyudhāna—‘anxious to fight’; the charioteer of Lord Kṛṣṇa and a Pāṇḍava ally; also known as Sātyaki, the son of Satyaka. (1.4) See also Sātyaki; (Names of Śrī Kṛṣṇa) Kṛṣṇa; (Names of groups) Pāṇḍavas.

Conchshells

Anantavijaya—name of King Yudhiṣṭhira’s conchshell, meaning “Unending victory.” (1.16) (Names of persons) Yudhiṣṭhira.

Devadatta—the conch of Arjuna which was obtained by Maya Dānava from Varuṇa. The name means, “God given.” (1.15) See also (Names of Arjuna) Arjuna; (Names of persons) Varuṇa.

Maṇipuṣpaka—name of Sahadeva’s conch-shell, meaning “Jewel bracelet.” (1.16) See also (Names of persons) Sahadeva.

Pāñcajanya—the conchshell of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa. It was taken from the demon Pañcajana after Kṛṣṇa slew him. (1.15) See also (Names of Śrī Kṛṣṇa) Kṛṣṇa.

Pauṇḍra—the conchshell of Bhīma. (1.15) See also (Names of persons) Bhīma.

Sughoṣa—the conchshell of Nakula, meaning “Making a pleasant sound.” (1.16) See also (Names of persons) Nakula.

Groups

Ādityas—the demigods who are descendants of Kaśyapa Muni’s wife, Aditi. (10.21, 11.6, 11.22)

Asuras—demons, or those who do not follow the principles of scripture; atheists, or gross materialists. (11.22) See also Daityas, Dānavas.

Aśvinī-kumāras—two demigods and celestial horsemen, who herald the dawn and are skilled in healing; they who begot Nakula and Sahadeva in the womb of Mādrī, the wife of Pāṇḍu. (11.6, 11.22) See also Aśvīs; (Names of persons) Nakula, Pāṇḍu, Sahadeva.

Aśvīs (two)—the Aśvinī-kumāras. (11.22) See Aśvinī-kumāras.

Daityas—a race of demons descending from Kaśyapa Prajāpati and Diti. (10.30) See also Asuras, Dānavas; (Persons) Prahlāda.

Dānavas—the sons born to Kaśyapa Prajāpati by his wife Danu; a race of demons. (10.14) See also Asuras, Daityas.

Dhārtarāṣṭras—sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. (1.19, 1.20, 1.35, 1.36, 1.45, 2.6) See also (Names of persons) Dhṛtarāṣṭra.

Draupadeyas—the five sons of Draupadī. (1.6, 1.18).

Four sages (catvāraḥ)—four great sages; the four Kumāras named Sanaka, Sananda, Sanātana and Sanatkumāra. (10.6)

Gandharvas—the celestial demigod singers, dancers, and musicians of the heavenly planets. (10.26, 11.22)

Kurus—all of the descendants of King Kuru, but specifically the hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra; enemies of the Pāṇḍavas. (1.25) See also Dhārtarāṣṭras, Pāṇḍavas; (Names of persons) Dhṛtarāṣṭra, Kuru.

Manus—demigods who are the ancestors of the human race; a generic name for any of the fourteen universal rulers who appear in each day of Lord Brahmā. (10.6) See also (Names of persons) Brahmā, Manu.

Maruts—the demigod associates of King Indra; the gods of the air, numbering forty-nine, and sons of Diti. (11.6, 11.22) See also Daityas; (Names of persons) Indra.

Nāgas—a race of many-hooded serpents. (10.29)

Pāṇḍavas—the sons of Pāṇḍu; the five pious kṣatriya brothers Yudhiṣṭhira, Bhīma, Arjuna, Nakula, and Sahadeva who were intimate friends of Lord Kṛṣṇa and who inherited the leadership of the world upon their victory over the Kurus in the Battle of Kurukṣetra. (1.1, 10.37) See also (Names of Śrī Kṛṣṇa) Kṛṣṇa; (Names of Arjuna) Arjuna; (Names of persons) Bhīma, Nakula, Pāṇḍu, Sahadeva, Yudhiṣṭhira.

Rākṣasas—a race of man-eating demons. (10.23, 11.36)

Rudras—the expansions of Lord Śiva who rule over the material mode of ignorance. (10.23, 11.6, 11.22) See also (Names of persons) Śiva.

Sādhyas—minor demigods inhabiting the heavenly planets. (11.22)

Seven sages (mahā-ṛṣayaḥ sapta)—the seven great sages are known as Kaśyapa, Atri, Vasiṣṭha, Viśvāmitra, Gautama, Jamadagni and Bhāradvāja; seven seers (ṛṣis) who are situated on sapta-ṛṣi loka, the seven stars of the Lesser Bear constellation. (10.6)

Siddhas—the minor demigod inhabitants of the Siddha planet (Siddhaloka), the heavenly planet whose inhabitants possess all mystic powers. (10.26, 11.21, 11.22)

Vasus—demigods; class of gods whose number is usually eight, and whose chief is Indra. (10.23, 11.6, 11.22) See also (Names of persons) Indra.

Viśvedevas—group of twelve minor demigods (11.22)

Yakṣas—the ghostly followers of the demigod Kuvera; semipious spirits. (10.23, 11.22) See also (Names of persons) Kuvera, Vitteśa.

Locations

Brahmaloka—the highest planet of the universe, that of the demigod Lord Brahmā. (8.16) See also (Names of persons) Brahmā.

Candraloka—the moon planet. (8.25) See also (Names of persons) Śaśāṅka.

Indraloka—the planet where Lord Indra resides. (9.20) See also (Names of persons) Indra.

Kurukṣetra—a holy place named thusly due to the penances of King Kuru. It was here that the great Mahābhārata war was fought, and where Lord Kṛṣṇa spoke the Bhagavad-gītā to Arjuna, five thou-sand years ago. It is situated about ninety miles north of New Delhi, and is a place of pilgrimage. (1.1) See also (Names of Śrī Kṛṣṇa) Kṛṣṇa; (Names of Arjuna) Arjuna; (Names of persons) Kuru.

Martyaloka—the mortal earth. Mortal world, world of mortals (9.21)

Miscellaneous

Mārgaśīrṣa—the month of November-December; considered the best of all months because in India grains are collected from the fields at this time and the people become very happy; the month when the moon enters the constellation of mṛga śiras (“deer head,” fifth lunar mansion). (10.35)

Oṁkāra (praṇava, akṣara)—oṁ, the root of Vedic knowledge; known as the mahā-vākya, the supreme sound; the transcendental syllable which represents Kṛṣṇa, and which is vibrated by transcendentalists for attainment of the Supreme when undertaking sacrifices, charities and penances. (7.8, 8.11, 8.13, 9.17, 10.25, 17.24) See also Oṁ tat sat; (Names of Śrī Kṛṣṇa) Kṛṣṇa.

Oṁ tat sat—the three transcendental syllables used by brāhmaṇas for satisfaction of the Supreme when chanting Vedic hymns or offer-ing sacrifice. They indicate the Supreme Absolute Truth, the Personality of Godhead. (17.23-7)

Kāmadhuk (Surabhī)—the cows in the spiritual world, which yield unlimited quantities of milk. (10.28)

Natural phenomena

Aśvattha—the banyan tree. (10.26, 15.1) See Banyan.

Banyan—a sacred tree of the fig family with self-rooting branches. (10.26, 15.1) See also Aśvatthaḥ.

Ganges (Gaṅgā)—the famous and holy Ganges river of India, which originates from the spiritual world and runs throughout the entire universe. (10.31)

Himālayas—the greatest mountains in the world; “Abode of snow.” (10.25)

Jāhnavī—daughter of sage Jahnu; another name of the River Ganges. (10.31) See Ganges (Gaṅgā).

Meru—a golden mountain famed for its rich natural resources, and one of the abodes of demigods like Śiva (Īśāna), Brahmā, Indra, Agni, Yama, Niruti, Varuṇa, Vāyu, and Kuvera; also called Mahameru. (10.23) See also (Names of persons) Agni, Brahmā, Indra, Kuvera, Śiva, Varuṇa, Vāyu, Yama.

Texts

Brahma-sūtra (Vedānta-sūtra)—the philoso-phical treatise written by Bādarāyaṇa (Vyāsa-deva), consisting of succinct aphorisms that embody the essential meaning of the Upaniṣads. (13.5, 15.15, 18.13) See also Brahma-sūtra; (Names of persons) Vyāsa. (13.5, 15.15, 18.13) See also Vedānta; (Names of persons) Vyāsa.

Bṛhat-sāma—one of the beautiful songs in the Sāma Veda played by the various demigods; it has an exquisite melody and is sung at midnight. (10.35) See also Sāma Veda.

Gāyatrī—a sacred mantra that a brāhmaṇa chants silently three times a day at sunrise, noon and sunset to attain the transcendental platform; the Vedic mantra that delivers one from material entanglement. (10.35)

Ṛg Veda—one of the four Vedas, the original scriptures spoken by the Lord Himself. (9.17)

Sāma Veda—one of the four original Vedas consisting of musical settings of the sacrificial hymns; it is rich with beautiful songs played by the various demigods. One of these songs is the Bṛhat-sāma, which has an exquisite melody and is sung at midnight. (9.17, 10.22, 10.35) See also Bṛhat-sāma.

Vedānta (Vedānta-sūtra, Brahma-sūtra)—the philosophical treatise written by Bādarāyaṇa (Vyāsadeva), consisting of succinct aphorisms that embody the essential meaning of the Upaniṣads. (13.5, 15.15, 18.13) See also Brahma-sūtra; (Names of persons) Vyāsa.

Yajur Veda—one of the four Vedas, the original revealed scriptures spoken by the Lord Himself. The Yajur Veda gives different ritualistic prescriptions for performing yajñas (sacrifices) to please the Supreme Lord, Viṣṇu. (9.17) See also (Names of Kṛṣṇa) Viṣṇu.

Weapons

Gāṇḍīva—the famous bow of Arjuna gifted to him by Agni after the burning of the Khāṇḍava forest. 1.29 See also (Names of Arjuna) Arjuna; (Names of persons) Agni.