Chapter Two: Contents of the Gītā Summarized
Bg 2.1 — Sañjaya said: Seeing Arjuna full of compassion, his mind depressed, his eyes full of tears, Madhusūdana, Kṛṣṇa, spoke the following words.
Bg 2.2 — The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: My dear Arjuna, how have these impurities come upon you? They are not at all beﬁtting a man who knows the value of life. They lead not to higher planets but to infamy.
Bg 2.3 — O son of Pṛthā, do not yield to this degrading impotence. It does not become you. Give up such petty weakness of heart and arise, O chastiser of the enemy.
Bg 2.4 — Arjuna said: O killer of enemies, O killer of Madhu, how can I counterattack with arrows in battle men like Bhīṣma and Droṇa, who are worthy of my worship?
Bg 2.5 — It would be better to live in this world by begging than to live at the cost of the lives of great souls who are my teachers. Even though desiring worldly gain, they are superiors. If they are killed, everything we enjoy will be tainted with blood.
Bg 2.6 — Nor do we know which is better – conquering them or being conquered by them. If we killed the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra, we should not care to live. Yet they are now standing before us on the battleﬁeld.
Bg 2.7 — Now I am confused about my duty and have lost all composure because of miserly weakness. In this condition I am asking You to tell me for certain what is best for me. Now I am Your disciple, and a soul surrendered unto You. Please instruct me.
Bg 2.8 — I can ﬁnd no means to drive away this grief which is drying up my senses. I will not be able to dispel it even if I win a prosperous, unrivaled kingdom on earth with sovereignty like the demigods in heaven.
Bg 2.9 — Sañjaya said: Having spoken thus, Arjuna, chastiser of enemies, told Kṛṣṇa, “Govinda, I shall not ﬁght,” and fell silent.
Bg 2.10 — O descendant of Bharata, at that time Kṛṣṇa, smiling, in the midst of both the armies, spoke the following words to the grief-stricken Arjuna.
Bg 2.11 — The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: While speaking learned words, you are mourning for what is not worthy of grief. Those who are wise lament neither for the living nor for the dead.
Bg 2.12 — Never was there a time when I did not exist, nor you, nor all these kings; nor in the future shall any of us cease to be.
Bg 2.13 — As the embodied soul continuously passes, in this body, from boyhood to youth to old age, the soul similarly passes into another body at death. A sober person is not bewildered by such a change.
Bg 2.14 — O son of Kuntī, the nonpermanent appearance of happiness and distress, and their disappearance in due course, are like the appearance and disappearance of winter and summer seasons. They arise from sense perception, O scion of Bharata, and one must learn to tolerate them without being disturbed.
Bg 2.15 — O best among men [Arjuna], the person who is not disturbed by happiness and distress and is steady in both is certainly eligible for liberation.
Bg 2.16 — Those who are seers of the truth have concluded that of the nonexistent [the material body] there is no endurance and of the eternal [the soul] there is no change. This they have concluded by studying the nature of both.
Bg 2.17 — That which pervades the entire body you should know to be indestructible. No one is able to destroy that imperishable soul.
Bg 2.18 — The material body of the indestructible, immeasurable and eternal living entity is sure to come to an end; therefore, ﬁght, O descendant of Bharata.
Bg 2.19 — Neither he who thinks the living entity the slayer nor he who thinks it slain is in knowledge, for the self slays not nor is slain.
Bg 2.20 — For the soul there is neither birth nor death at any time. He has not come into being, does not come into being, and will not come into being. He is unborn, eternal, ever-existing and primeval. He is not slain when the body is slain.
Bg 2.21 — O Pārtha, how can a person who knows that the soul is indestructible, eternal, unborn and immutable kill anyone or cause anyone to kill?
Bg 2.22 — As a person puts on new garments, giving up old ones, the soul similarly accepts new material bodies, giving up the old and useless ones.
Bg 2.23 — The soul can never be cut to pieces by any weapon, nor burned by ﬁre, nor moistened by water, nor withered by the wind.
Bg 2.24 — This individual soul is unbreakable and insoluble, and can be neither burned nor dried. He is everlasting, present everywhere, unchangeable, immovable and eternally the same.
Bg 2.25 — It is said that the soul is invisible, inconceivable and immutable. Knowing this, you should not grieve for the body.
Bg 2.26 — If, however, you think that the soul [or the symptoms of life] will always be born and die forever, you still have no reason to lament, O mighty-armed.
Bg 2.27 — One who has taken his birth is sure to die, and after death one is sure to take birth again. Therefore, in the unavoidable discharge of your duty, you should not lament.
Bg 2.28 — All created beings are unmanifest in their beginning, manifest in their interim state, and unmanifest again when annihilated. So what need is there for lamentation?
Bg 2.29 — Some look on the soul as amazing, some describe him as amazing, and some hear of him as amazing, while others, even after hearing about him, cannot understand him at all.
Bg 2.30 — O descendant of Bharata, he who dwells in the body can never be slain. Therefore you need not grieve for any living being.
Bg 2.31 — Considering your speciﬁc duty as a kṣatriya, you should know that there is no better engagement for you than ﬁghting on religious principles; and so there is no need for hesitation.
Bg 2.32 — O Pārtha, happy are the kṣatriyas to whom such ﬁghting opportunities come unsought, opening for them the doors of the heavenly planets.
Bg 2.33 — If, however, you do not perform your religious duty of ﬁghting, then you will certainly incur sins for neglecting your duties and thus lose your reputation as a ﬁghter.
Bg 2.34 — People will always speak of your infamy, and for a respectable person, dishonor is worse than death.
Bg 2.35 — The great generals who have highly esteemed your name and fame will think that you have left the battleﬁeld out of fear only, and thus they will consider you insigniﬁcant.
Bg 2.36 — Your enemies will describe you in many unkind words and scorn your ability. What could be more painful for you?
Bg 2.37 — O son of Kuntī, either you will be killed on the battleﬁeld and attain the heavenly planets, or you will conquer and enjoy the earthly kingdom. Therefore, get up with determination and ﬁght.
Bg 2.38 — Do thou ﬁght for the sake of ﬁghting, without considering happiness or distress, loss or gain, victory or defeat – and by so doing you shall never incur sin.
Bg 2.39 — Thus far I have described this knowledge to you through analytical study. Now listen as I explain it in terms of working without fruitive results. O son of Pṛthā, when you act in such knowledge you can free yourself from the bondage of works.
Bg 2.40 — In this endeavor there is no loss or diminution, and a little advancement on this path can protect one from the most dangerous type of fear.
Bg 2.41 — Those who are on this path are resolute in purpose, and their aim is one. O beloved child of the Kurus, the intelligence of those who are irresolute is many-branched.
Bg 2.42-43 — Men of small knowledge are very much attached to the ﬂowery words of the Vedas, which recommend various fruitive activities for elevation to heavenly planets, resultant good birth, power, and so forth. Being desirous of sense gratiﬁcation and opulent life, they say that there is nothing more than this.
Bg 2.44 — In the minds of those who are too attached to sense enjoyment and material opulence, and who are bewildered by such things, the resolute determination for devotional service to the Supreme Lord does not take place.
Bg 2.45 — The Vedas deal mainly with the subject of the three modes of material nature. O Arjuna, become transcendental to these three modes. Be free from all dualities and from all anxieties for gain and safety, and be established in the self.
Bg 2.46 — All purposes served by a small well can at once be served by a great reservoir of water. Similarly, all the purposes of the Vedas can be served to one who knows the purpose behind them.
Bg 2.47 — You have a right to perform your prescribed duty, but you are not entitled to the fruits of action. Never consider yourself the cause of the results of your activities, and never be attached to not doing your duty.
Bg 2.48 — Perform your duty equipoised, O Arjuna, abandoning all attachment to success or failure. Such equanimity is called yoga.
Bg 2.49 — O Dhanañjaya, keep all abominable activities far distant by devotional service, and in that consciousness surrender unto the Lord. Those who want to enjoy the fruits of their work are misers.
Bg 2.50 — A man engaged in devotional service rids himself of both good and bad reactions even in this life. Therefore strive for yoga, which is the art of all work.
Bg 2.51 — By thus engaging in devotional service to the Lord, great sages or devotees free themselves from the results of work in the material world. In this way they become free from the cycle of birth and death and attain the state beyond all miseries [by going back to Godhead].
Bg 2.52 — When your intelligence has passed out of the dense forest of delusion, you shall become indifferent to all that has been heard and all that is to be heard.
Bg 2.53 — When your mind is no longer disturbed by the ﬂowery language of the Vedas, and when it remains ﬁxed in the trance of self-realization, then you will have attained the divine consciousness.
Bg 2.54 — Arjuna said: O Kṛṣṇa, what are the symptoms of one whose consciousness is thus merged in transcendence? How does he speak, and what is his language? How does he sit, and how does he walk?
Bg 2.55 — The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: O Pārtha, when a man gives up all varieties of desire for sense gratiﬁcation, which arise from mental concoction, and when his mind, thus puriﬁed, ﬁnds satisfaction in the self alone, then he is said to be in pure transcendental consciousness.
Bg 2.56 — One who is not disturbed in mind even amidst the threefold miseries or elated when there is happiness, and who is free from attachment, fear and anger, is called a sage of steady mind.
Bg 2.57 — In the material world, one who is unaffected by whatever good or evil he may obtain, neither praising it nor despising it, is ﬁrmly ﬁxed in perfect knowledge.
Bg 2.58 — One who is able to withdraw his senses from sense objects, as the tortoise draws its limbs within the shell, is ﬁrmly ﬁxed in perfect consciousness.
Bg 2.59 — Though the embodied soul may be restricted from sense enjoyment, the taste for sense objects remains. But, ceasing such engagements by experiencing a higher taste, he is ﬁxed in consciousness.
Bg 2.60 — The senses are so strong and impetuous, O Arjuna, that they forcibly carry away the mind even of a man of discrimination who is endeavoring to control them.
Bg 2.61 — One who restrains his senses, keeping them under full control, and ﬁxes his consciousness upon Me, is known as a man of steady intelligence.
Bg 2.62 — While contemplating the objects of the senses, a person develops attachment for them, and from such attachment lust develops, and from lust anger arises.
Bg 2.63 — From anger, complete delusion arises, and from delusion bewilderment of memory. When memory is bewildered, intelligence is lost, and when intelligence is lost one falls down again into the material pool.
Bg 2.64 — But a person free from all attachment and aversion and able to control his senses through regulative principles of freedom can obtain the complete mercy of the Lord.
Bg 2.65 — For one thus satisﬁed [in Kṛṣṇa consciousness], the threefold miseries of material existence exist no longer; in such satisﬁed consciousness, one’s intelligence is soon well established.
Bg 2.66 — One who is not connected with the Supreme [in Kṛṣṇa consciousness] can have neither transcendental intelligence nor a steady mind, without which there is no possibility of peace. And how can there be any happiness without peace?
Bg 2.67 — As a strong wind sweeps away a boat on the water, even one of the roaming senses on which the mind focuses can carry away a man’s intelligence.
Bg 2.68 — Therefore, O mighty-armed, one whose senses are restrained from their objects is certainly of steady intelligence.
Bg 2.69 — What is night for all beings is the time of awakening for the self-controlled; and the time of awakening for all beings is night for the introspective sage.
Bg 2.70 — A person who is not disturbed by the incessant ﬂow of desires – that enter like rivers into the ocean, which is ever being ﬁlled but is always still – can alone achieve peace, and not the man who strives to satisfy such desires.
Bg 2.71 — A person who has given up all desires for sense gratiﬁcation, who lives free from desires, who has given up all sense of proprietorship and is devoid of false ego – he alone can attain real peace.
Bg 2.72 — That is the way of the spiritual and godly life, after attaining which a man is not bewildered. If one is thus situated even at the hour of death, one can enter into the kingdom of God.